The Narrative Metaphor

Posted by on May 10, 2015 in Uncategorised | 336 comments

In this chapter we examine how stories are an important frame through which we make meaning of our lives. In each reading and video provided we invite you to be on the lookout for the multi-stories of people’s lives rather than a single story.

Photo: Shaun Tan: Eric (with permission)


This dot exercise from Jill Freedman and Gene Combs was animated by Will Sherwin to help you visualise the Narrative Therapy concept of ‘multi-storied lives’.


For more from Jill and Gene you can go to

For more from Will Sherwin and Bay Area Narrative Therapy Resource, trainings and radio shows you can go to



Novelist Chimamanda Adichie warns that if we hear only a single story about another person or country, we risk a critical misunderstanding. In ‘The Danger of a Single Story’ she speaks about how our lives and our cultures are composed of many overlapping stories.



We have included here an extract from Alice Morgan’s influential and highly popular text in which she provides a brief introduction to the narrative metaphor

What is Narrative Therapy – An Easy to Read Introduction | Alice Morgan



In this short extract Michael White’s speaks about the possibilities that the narrative metaphor opened up in his therapeutic work, what attracted him to the narrative metaphor and offers an example of how the narrative metaphor shapes therapeutic conversations.

The narrative metaphor in family therapy | an interview with Michael White


What is the narrative of our lives – and can we influence the way our story is told? Michael White and Barbara Brooks, a memoir writer, join producer Gretchen Miller in conversation on ABC Radio National and online. Michael and Barbara joined Gretchen Miller to talk about the grand narratives of our lives and how much influence we have over the way our story unfolds

The Power of Storytelling


This (draft) Charter proposes a framework for considering storytelling rights. We hope it will spark discussions about the rights of people who have experienced trauma/social suffering in relation to how their stories are told and received.

Narrative Therapy (Draft) Charter of Story-Telling Rights by David Denborough

Article 1  Everyone has the right to define their experiences and problems in their own words and terms.

Article 2  Everyone has the right for their life to be understood in the context of what they have been through and in the context of their relationships with others.

Article 3  Everyone has the right to invite others who are important to them to be involved in the process of reclaiming their life from the effects of trauma.

Article 4 Everyone has the right to be free from having problems caused by trauma and injustice located inside them, internally, as if there is some deficit in them. The person is not the problem, the problem is the problem.

Article 5 Everyone has the right for their responses to trauma to be acknowledged. No one is a passive recipient of trauma. People always respond. People always protest injustice.

Article 6  Everyone has the right to have their skills and knowledges of survival respected, honoured and acknowledged.

Article 7  Everyone has the right to know and experience that what they have learnt through hardship can make a contribution to others in similar situations.



Photo: Shaun Tan: Eric

For Reflection 


How would you describe the narrative metaphor?


What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?



Please now share your thoughts & reflections below and then continue to the next chapter! Please include where you are writing from (City and Country). Thanks! 


  1. Hi. I am teacher trained but working now in the social and emotional well being field in remote north west WA with indigenous communities. I am also a foster carer.
    I have been introduced to narrative therapy practices recently and am enthusiastic about learning more. So far, I see it fitting with the strength based approach used in mentoring.
    I also see it being useful in collectively empowering people who are trying to break the cycle of trauma in their communities.
    Im looking forward to learning more about exploring strength stories in the midst of trauma.

  2. I am Leanne Hill from Calgary, Canada. I am a social worker at the Alzheimer Society of Calgary and work primarily with informal (non-paid) caregivers for individuals with all forms of dementia diagnosis.

    Article 7 of the “Narrative Therapy Charter of Story Telling Rights” particularly resonated with me. My role is to oversee the 4 support groups for caregivers which operate under our umbrella. Regrettably, we almost always have wait lists for our groups; our staff levels (related to our funding levels) does not allow us to start any more groups at present.

    Virtually all of our support group participants declare at some time that support groups profoundly help them in two ways: (a) They learn they are not the only ones who are on this difficult journey; and, (b) They learn they are not the only ones who have made mistakes along this journey. The “contributions [made] to others in similar situations” can provide enormous relief as well as strength for caregivers along this difficult journey. I count it an enormous privilege to be part of these caregivers’ lives.

  3. Hello! I am Leanne from Calgary, Canada. I, too, am grateful for this opportunity; many thanks to the Dulwich Centre for providing this exceptionally high quality course.

    I work as a social worker at the Alzheimer Society of Calgary and work primarily with non-paid caregivers (often family members) for individuals with any form of dementia. The basis of our work and educational programs is “life story” so much of the information in this module resonated strongly with me.

    My role is to “manage” the 4 support groups which we oversee for caregivers. I found the words of Article Seven of the “Narrative Therapy Charter of Story-telling Rights” to be particularly applicable to the work in which I am involved with our support groups: “Everyone has the right to know and experience that what they have learned through hardships CAN MAKE A CONTRIBUTION TO OTHERS IN SIMILAR SITUATIONS.”

    We are rarely without waiting lists for our support groups; due to our staffing levels at present, (which is directly related to our funding) we are unable to start any further groups. I never cease to be amazed by the healing which takes place in these groups when individuals hear the stories of others which confirm they are not the only ones who have walked this difficult path and are not the only ones who have made mistakes along this journey. This also embraces Article 4 – “The person is not the problem, the problem is the problem.”

    I was also reminded of an experience I had in university. I entered university at age 46 and graduated at age 50 with a bachelor degree in social work. During one of my courses, we were required to keep a journal of our reflections of our experiences during one of our practicums.

    I was 48 at the time of this practicum and while I had learned much about navigating computers, I still was not nearly as comfortable as my younger classmates. Many of my classmates created beautiful collages online for their journals while I simply told stories. I received a note of criticism from the prof asking that I use less narration and start including photos, etc in my entries. I had had this prof for other classes and was VERY frightened of her.

    I worried about this for about 3 days and wondered which of my classmates liked me well enough that I could ask them for help in this regard!! 🙂 🙂 I then realized that, for me, stories were how I learned best. I then wrote a very respectful response to the professor stating that stories were my preferred method of learning and communication and asked if she might possibly reconsider her directive.

    I received a reply from her in a day wherein she stated that I could continue to complete my journal using stories. I was one grateful student!!!

  4. Hi everybody from the beautiful city of Bad Homburg right in the middle of Germany!
    I am so grateful to be offered this course. My deep appreciation to everyone who contributed to its design and execution.
    I am a Story Practitioner and I work with stories on an organizational level and not on a therapeutic one, although most of the times the boundaries between the two seem to be quite blurry.
    I was happily surprised to see already from the beginning the reference and video to Chimamanda Adichie, whom I love.
    What I keep from her story at this particular time which I would like to share with you is this: “The single story creates stereotypes, and the problem with stereotypes is not that they are untrue, but that they are incomplete. They make one story become the only story. . . . The consequence of the single story is this: It robs people of dignity. It makes our recognition of our equal humanity difficult. It emphasizes how we are different rather than how we are similar.”
    A core part of my work is to bring and/or enhance humanity in organizations as they have become quite cruel and harsh for their people nowadays. The narrative approach helps me so much with my mission.

  5. I have been a practicing therapist for almost 20 years in Canada. I continue to find myself drawn to metaphor and to externalizing the problems presented by clients. I’m always amazed by the excitement clients have as they start to see their problem as something outside themselves and start to embrace their internal skills and abilities that are accessible to manage that problem.

    I’m feeling re-inspired as I gobble up all this information and eagerly apply it to my work.

  6. Hello all, my name is Bonnie and I am from the home of Narrative Therapy, Adelaide Australia!

    I’m currently in my final year of a counselling degree and am also taking the time to complete this course as it’s something I’ve wanted to do since I first learnt about Narrative Therapy.

    I really love the format and concepts of Narrative Therapy as I have always been drawn to the stories of people and places. I love listening to people tell stories about themselves and I have a huge interest in anything that presents a story to me.

    I feel the metaphors used to describe narrative therapy such as the dot experiment show that there is such a rich and deep meaning to our lives that is comprised of so many layers. By using the concept of storytelling it can help people visualise how they want their story to go on which can inspire them to go forward and make choices that enhance their lives in meaningful ways.

  7. Hello everyone!

    My name is Thea and I am a masters student from Toronto, Ontario. I was especially moved by Chimamanda Adichie’s Ted Talk on the dangers of a single story. I work with children and youth who are subjected to these single stories every day, defined by thin descriptions and created by other people. Oftentimes these stories become so deeply engrained that the individual believes it as the ultimate truth. I think that a narrative perspective is so valuable because it provides the space and techniques to unpack these deeply entrenched personal narratives that dictate all aspects of one’s life and how they experience the world.

  8. Hello Everyone, my name is Marnel and I’m currently living in Cali, Colombia. For me the narrative metaphor is an ideal way to give new and rich senses to our life. Faced with situations that have been signified as traumatic, they tend to have simple narratives where the traumatic event becomes important, leaving aside the diversity of everyday experiences. I agree with Michael White, when he proposes that families assign alternate meanings to events, it is about becoming aware of those strategies they have intuitively used to continue living, finding new threads to weave stories of hope and new purposes to fulfill.

    In my case as a psychologist, it will serve me so that the attentive listening of the stories of children and adults will be a starting point to accompany them to put the magnifying glass on those experiences that emanate life, but many times they bury themselves under a single, unchanging version.

    I am currently working in kindergartens, one of the situations I see is that parental separations increasingly occur within a few months or years of the birth of the child, who find it difficult to manage this situation, generating in turn an impact on their children. I find it interesting to be able to accompany both parents and children back to their stories, going back to key moments that allow them to stop and observe, find internal resources, empower themselves from their decisions and current situation. Thanks

  9. Hi course-mates. I am Canadian writing from Egypt. I work with adolescents in a school setting.

    When academic/career counselling my focus has always been that the students are the architects of their own lives and can use their existing expertise to work through the choices they are contemplating. Narrative therapy fits right into that as I am learning to be a social/emotional counsellor as well.

    Question: If we decide at the end of this course that we would like the certificate, can we pay and do the tasks then, or must we be on the certificate track from the beginning?

    Thanks, looking forward to learning with you all!

    • Hi Leah, You can do it either way 🙂 It’s fine to just work your way through it all now and then decide at the end if you want to attain the certificate. We hope you find the course helpful.

  10. Between the lines of every story, there is nothingness. Who are we if we drop the stories we carry around about ourselves? This is a scary question. So it would seem understandable that we do not easily drop our old worn out stories.

    Narrative therapy is a tool to help re-write for ourselves an alternative story line in which we can ultimately feel reborn. The space we occupy becomes bigger and greater through the development of alternative stories. By engaging our imagination, we begin to see ourselves in a new light and with a new purpose. We awaken to ourselves through a process that is both cathartic and transformative.

    B.A. Beal, Colorado

  11. I am very happy to participate in this online course. I love narrative therapy, I am from Chile and I study at PRANAS Chile.
    This course gives me more breadth of learning and I resonate with the words “thin description”. I think about the importance of a story being thick, because that gives strength to an alternative story to the problem and to a limited identity of oneself.
    I think that if we promote alternative stories, we can change people and the world. Yes, I have a hopeful view of life, but it is because I have known the power of narrative practices in people.
    I work with children victims of sexual abuse and abuse. For me it is still hopeful in the dark, it is to make them shine with different stories, love stories, stories of care, protection and happy moments. Thanks to these stories, we all advance to a new and welcoming territory.

  12. As a Social Prescriber I frequently work with people who see themselves as in crisis, overwhelmed and stuck. I am beginning to recognise how I might use a narrative approach to support my clients to identify their own current stories and support them in co-authoring new and/or different ones, knowing that they are not the problem, the problem is the problem.

    • Yes, this resonated with me also. I was looking for another approach to support clients who feel helpless or stuck – the Narrative metaphor can help people explore, develop and live alternative stories to ‘thin’or problem oriented stories! This approach is a client centred approach which helps us to see people have more than one story – rather there are multiple possibilities, all impacted by time, history and social, structural and cultural constructs. Thinking about stories in this way makes hope and exciting opportunities possible. It makes it possible to see people as more than limited, thin labels, stories or problems. It makes it possible to see the exceptions to the dominant stories, and to challenge these dominant stories with alternative story-lines that open up gaps in peoples otherwise problem-saturated stories. These alternatives can then be richly described to help create real and preferred possibilities as people re-author new and preferred stories for their lives.

      Thank you for this free course!
      Regards, from Sydney, Australia

  13. Thank you for this excellent online course!

    I’m enjoying thinking about the ways that we story our lives, and how narrative therapy can open up opportunities to re-author our lives in ways that are more multi-faceted, complex, and full of possibility than the tired thin storylines that can sometimes dominate the ways we make meaning of the world and our experiences. For myself, this chapter had me thinking about a dominant storyline in my family about how I’m not sporty or athletic. It’s a story that has gotten in the way of me relishing movement, and working through the resources in this chapter had me thinking about all the moments from alternative plot lines, where I have been physically adept, and getting excited about uncovering the subordinate plot lines of my life, and the ways that they may better serve me now, and into the future. I’m looking forward to learning more, and thinking about how I can integrate learning from this course into my work as a social work educator. I’m keen to get creative about what narrative ideas look like in a community context.

    Tanya, Whangārei, Aotearoa New Zealand

  14. I would describe the narrative metaphor as a medium to create meanings of our identity and life. We allocate particular meanings to events, people and situations to be aligned with the story we hold for ourselves. It is noteworthy that our stories are also affected by social and structural elements.

    I like the possibility of re-authoring that narrative approach may offer. As a clinical social worker, I would say that the narrative space allows my individual clients to reflect on their own way of interpreting their identity and to reconstruct it with their strengths, resilience and competencies. Collective identities might also benefit from group re-authoring process.

  15. Gelmar C.
    Tampa, FL.

    I was reminded of the importance of being curious, collaborating with our clients, and honestly believing that they can bring as much expertize into the conversation as we allow them too as therapists. People’s dominant stories indeed have the opportunity to change depending on the way we choose to explore, challenge, highlight, and empower their current perspectives.

  16. This shows the importance of providing the opportunities for people to narrate their story and the importance of us to encourage people to explore the different narratives of their life and not only settle on the one story.
    It shows how easy it is to make assumptions about others when we only focus on the single story and how this gets in the way of how we see others.
    we start to show empathy and compassion when we are able to see a person from their many experiences and then we are able to see more of the sameness than difference.

    • I am really appreciating the stance of narrative therapy. I have had many conversations with coworkers about how our words to each other affect the work we do with our clients. It is essential to hold that curiosity when you are with clients and when you are updating/debriefing with coworkers. Especially in times of high stres.

  17. I am excited to learn more about narrative therapy. The idea of enriching peoples stories and expanding on their ideas to create to broaden their perspective is so interesting.

  18. UK
    I work as part of a school re-integration team at a children’s hospital. My role is to support children and their families with the multiple challenges which accompany returning to school following head injury, complex orthopaedic injury, or intra-abdominal injury.

    I would describe the narrative metaphor as a way of understanding: a person’s perception of self; their perception of how different systems in the world around them interact; and finally their perception of support and resource available to them. This narrative can be thin and one track or diverse and multifaceted. For people who have experienced trauma, this trauma often becomes the dominant narrative and all others become secondary to it.

    Sadly, single/thin narratives are common in the hospital setting. Although we will gather a broad range of information about a person in our assessments, we still tend to define of the child in terms of their injury rather than thinking of their injury as one of many stories which make up a much richer narrative. As a result, I think we can dis-empower families from using previous stories/ experiences to allow them to cope and re-define the current story.

    In my work, I think I could use the narrative metaphor to encourage children and families to think holistically about all of the skills and resources they have developed in the past and how these experiences/ stories can be drawn upon to create or return to a much richer multifaceted story which allows them to move forward with this injury.

  19. I am enjoying the exposure to the narrative therapy and look forward to learning more. I was particularly struck by the parting words on the Friday Afternoon Talk – “We cannot separate healing from justice”. As a social worker, this is something I think we don’t give enough attention to.

    • San Antonio, TX (USA) The Narrative Metaphor in relating one’s story reveals the impact of significant experienced events in shaping one’s world. These narratives can be a mixture of both good and bad experiences where an individual has a choice to build upon successes, forging their healthy narratives emerging strong and resilient. Narratives chosen and focused exclusively on bad experiences/influences weaken the human spirit and require intervention to lift the veil of the negativism creating problem(s).

  20. Patricia Lewis from Sydney Australia, Christian Counsellor and Spiritual Psychotherapist

    The Narrative Metaphor is liberating for people who have experienced trauma and have been stuck in a box with a thin conclusion that only involves the traumatic storyline. To be able to re-author their lives with an alternative story where trauma is not the defining factor in their lives anymore is a door of hope and a door to freedom. As a spiritual psychotherapist, people come to me to explore their traumatic experiences with the added opportunity of exploring their spiritual dimension. Some spiritual leaders were great storytellers like Jesus and they used metaphors to communicate their teaching in a meaningful way to their hearers.

  21. Jerusalem, Israel The narrative metaphor, for me, is a way of seeing that life, instead of being black and white, is so rich and interesting. By giving labels and putting people neatly into a box, identities are squashed to the extent that the recipient believes that life all or nothing. I’m either completely motivated or I am not.
    The narrative metaphor is about hanging out with the grey; seeing that as humans, our lives are complex and that we all have an interesting story that has shaped who we actually are. When looking at life as a story with lots of different themes running through it, different facets of identity can be seen. Stories are therefore widening the identity of individuals, showing that instead of life being very narrow and rigid, people’s lives are actually so rich and super interesting.
    Thinking in this way has been an empowering experience for me. The typical DSM labels have always scared me. How can I possibly work with someone who is ADHD, depressed etc? However, thinking in terms of, hanging out with the grey, has turned things around. It’s now exciting to meet people with these ‘labels’, knowing that there is so much more to them then a black and white diagnosis. There is a story there waiting to be told, which in turn has strengthened my curiosity.

    • Patricia Lewis Sydney Australia. Yaakov I share with you the thrill of finding in the narrative metaphor a way of escaping from the box that people seem to always try to stash me in. I relish the freedom that it brings to realise that we have multiple stories, that often those stories may seem contradictory to others and even irreconcilable but they still form part of who we are as people. I have found family members, coworkers and acquaintances often try to force a dominant story on me, and myself protesting HEY, hang on a minute, there is so much more to me than that. As a therapist, I hate labels. I see my clients as people with stories to tell. Nearly 100% of my clients come to me as a result of trauma, so to find an approach to therapy that allows me to see them outside of the lens of trauma survivors, is refreshing. You are from Israel and this reminds me of Jesus who was from Israel too and was a great story teller. He told stories to help people make meaning of their lives. As a spiritual psychotherapist, storytelling is a great tool for me to have and to use in reaching out to my clients who often come to see me due to the opportunity of exploring their spiritual dimension with me.

  22. Pedro (Spanish) writing from Australia (Darwin) and Spain (The Canary Islands: Lanzarote). I was living in Darwin until recently and I had to come back to Spain.

    How would you describe the narrative metaphor?

    I would describe narrative metaphor as the group of stories created by one person and connected by the beliefs, conditions, social pressures, and place where the person lives. Stories that can be differently observed and understood and that can be modified and evaluated with a different lens if you have the correct tools to do it.
    What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?

    Thinking in this way changes my point of view of situations and events. Even a traumatic event can be understood differently if you can see the case through a different perspective, from the outside as something that is happening, something that has a name and that you can identify due to you can modify it ( The story ). This is my guess, and I hope to work even more on this to understand correctly.

  23. Hello Everyone,
    My name is Joy and I’m currently living in the Wheatbelt, WA.
    I was struck while working through this material at the need to develop the skill to listen for the other stories or other ways the narrative could be told. Whether implicit or explicit references are made, it is the practitioner’s job to hear those, recognize them and tease them out through more questions and conversation. It’s lovely in theory to say that our goal is to give the problem stories new, beneficial meaning but how to work through that in practice (especially with deep, internal beliefs) is another thing all together. I look forward to working through this course and seeing some of this in action through different examples.
    I will also need to sit down and spend more time with the 7 specific articles in the Charter and think through how they apply in my work context. As much as I believe that healing and justice do have an important link, I’m wondering if healing could be beneficially separated from justice in cases where justice might not be so easily reachable. It makes sense that healing and justice should go together but I’m wondering how that looks when justice is absent for some reason.

  24. People are social and interpretive beings who make sense of their lives through stories. They live their lives through stories and these stories have significant impact on their lives. The dot exercise is a great illustration of how we can help people construct new stories by helping them assign meanings and connect those events or experiences that are outside of problem-saturated story. With narrative metaphor we see people’s lives as stories. This thinking about stories make possible for me to co-create new and more preferred stories with my clients. As a result they can live their lives according to their preferences, values, beliefs, commitments, and purposes. Our stories are also influenced and shaped by social/cultural/historical/political contexts in which we live. This makes possible to consider how problems are cultural in nature and socially constructed. Respect, freedom, liberation from oppressive discourses, privileging local knowledge, and non-pathologizing view of people are some of the most appealing aspects of narrative therapy to me. I am looking forward to learn more!

  25. Thank you for offering this course, I did a three month training a number of years ago and have been using many ideas. I welcome the opportunity to revisit and incorporate more ideas. Following attending the ‘Power, Threat and Meaning’ Training recently, I have renewed interest in becoming more skilled in listening to and helping develop people’s stories.

  26. Hi, I’m based in Waikato, New Zealand. I first came across narrative therapy while doing my undergraduate psychology degree. It resonated with me in a way that nothing else has. I now work with couples and individuals in step and divorced families on-line, predominantly in the US, Australia, and New Zealand. I find a narrative therapy framework very useful for not only helping clients unpack their stories and examine the beliefs they hold, but also in helping them imagine a life that sits more in alignment with their values, with who and how they want to be in the world. Understanding that their story is possibly not shared or understood by their exes or the new partners of their exes is an essential tool.

  27. Hi, I am a psychologist near Sydney, Australia. The contents and basis for NT resonates with me as I have always considered each person’s story as unique to both their experience and, their perspective. The narrative changes the direction of experience, it influences choice and decision, and forms the basis for personal expectation. This is all without considering others’ narrative of oneself! Chimamanda Adichie’s presence is lovely.

  28. Hello everyone,

    Firstly – thank you all at the Dulwich Centre for offering this wonderful online course. I am a training counsellor with a prior degree in English literature, and this introduction to Narrative Therapy made me feel like I had found my counselling spiritual home. I am inspired by its optimistic, kind and just practices, and feel these will help shape the work I hope to do with future clients.

    I was considering the idea of a ‘thin story’ after watching this section, having previously been a creator of my own thin (but for ages completely watertight) story of personal difficulty. A thin story works like hagiography: every moment indicates the inevitability of the saint’s eventual canonisation. For us who are not saints (!), a thin story more often works in desperate reverse. I wish early experiences of therapy had helped me to create a richer narrative that examined and challenged my own thin story of hopelessness: I might have been able to acknowledge and incorporate a capacity to survive, and thus face down a narrative arc which had currency with others as well as myself that I was inexorably destined to fall into a heap. Instead, I was encouraged to adapt to (and therefore accept and remain silent about) the injustice I experienced under the guise of fixing my faulty perceptions of those events.

    I feel Narrative Therapy’s stance is not only egalitarian and optimistic, it is such a powerful way to resist the perpetuation the effects of injustice, personally and socially. Even more importantly for me, it is without blame – we all have our narratives, and we all do the best with them that we can. From time to time we might just need a little help to see the possibility of a richer story.


  29. Hi! My name is Rebeca, I comme from Brazil. I am now living in Wollongong to start a Maste of Social Work.
    I am thinking about David’s presentation on the narrative therapy charter of storytellig righs, because this is a question that is always present in my reflections: not separating justice from healing. The charter reminds s some principles that can be helpfull in our work to enable people to experience justice through the re-authoring of their live in their own terms.

  30. Victoria, Australia.

    What a wonderful introduction to narrative therapy. The power of actively listening to the story and words a person tells will enable me to understand a person and their situation.

    I am currently studying uni and narrative therapy has been something that has stood out to me and I am excited to continue onto the next chapter.

  31. I am currently studying psychology with the aim of working as a Play Therapist. I have 6 children of my own and am keen to be engaged in work that gives children the ability to process and frame their experiences and challenges in ways that will support their futures.
    Incorporating NT, especially the assumption that problems are separate from people, looks to be very beneficial.
    I am very keen to continue through this online program, and to learn more through The Dulwich Centre.
    Amelia, Sydney, Australia.

  32. Hi, Astrid here, currently from Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    A few years ago I attended a NT course and was less enthusiastic than most others in the group; could never really figure out why. Meanwhile, while starting on this one to be on par with a team all enrolling in this, I gain some insight in what may have happened. I will leave that for self reflection from here.

    For the purpose of the course reflection: The power of words… although I can get wordy myself I like to keep things simple. All the sections of this lesson on the narrative metaphor show how important it is to recognise a story for what it is: one story. And knowing that there are always many others to invite to the therapeutic space. Whether that is to elicit empowerment or a richer context to a persons background or our experiences of live today.
    I find it enriching to be made aware of this again from so many different perspectives and to now not only apply this to work with clients but also with supervisees. I look forward to the rest of the course.

    • Hello, my name is Tom and I live in Bristol Uk.

      Astrid thanks for your reflection on the power of words, you set me off on an interesting train of thought that I will try and capture here.

      I am interested in the power of words particularly in the sense that it is so often words, language, which we use to articulate our stories. This can be problematic when our language has been given to us, for example through a medical model where specific diagnosis and technical language suddenly have to do with you and make up the words you have at your disposal to articulate your experience. A diagnosis can be very helpful in the giving of a word to describe an understanding that is shared and common. However so many of these words have connotations or assumptions around them that our social as well as medical. On a personal level, after experiencing a series of episodes of psychosis I have tried to find ways to tell that story. I have been sharply aware that there is not just one interpretation of those experiences or one conclusion as to what they say about me. The word psychosis itself carries a cultural resonance that is not always helpful in the telling of my story. Thanks for allowing me the space to try and communicate what the power of words means to me in relation to narrative.

  33. I really appreciate this course. As a social worker and music therapist learning about narrative therapy is opening up ways I can facilitate conversations that allow people to tap into creativity, tell their story in new and preferred ways. My mind is spinning with ways I can incorporate music and expressive arts in this process as I’m sure I will find others already have. Thank you to Dulwich Centre for the care and thoughtfulness put in to gathering these materials. It has really enlivened my work.

  34. I am responding from Perth, Western Australia.

    As a uni tutor and writer
    the narrative metaphor offers a way of understanding ourselves, and others, holistically.
    Students introduce themselves to me by explaining who they are and why they want tuition; in effect telling their story, even if it’s a brief one. They elaborate on it during sessions and I offer them parts of mine. We are learning about each other, understanding each other’s needs through the stories; using the way we tell them, the words we choose and the questions we ask each other.
    Narratives in human communication are so important and so enriching for the teller and the listener.

  35. Wow! What to write? I am a teaching assistant in the UK who has had ELSA training by EPS to help children with emotional litercay needs. This is something that I strongly beleive is necessary for our young children as does the school I work with. Over the last two years, I have learned alot and as I continue my journey, I am learning more everyday! I am curious about learning more regarding Narrative Therapy, to further my skills and therefore further help children who need that support. So far, I am understand that Narrative Therapy is a means to help people recognise who they are, what they have and know and realise that they can use their stengths to find their inner self and face everything and anything that comes before them during their lives. As I continue this learning journey, I hope to understand more and be able to help make a postive difference in someones life.

  36. Writing from Montreal, Canada. Thank you for such an engaging, informative and accessible course. In reflecting on my work with clients and my own stories, I thought about the importance and beauty of zooming out, choosing different angles, widths, lenses. How when we focus on single (thin) aspects we don’t see or understand the whole picture or ecosystem- the realities,impressions, events, good, bad ugly and otherwise. That we need to consider a full picture, with varying shades, light and darkness, color and texture, rather than mono-tonal, flat pictures that don’t tell the whole story or capture the whole landscape. We cannot see the forest for the trees without zooming out and allowing more than one tree to enter the point of view.

  37. Greetings from the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia – Canada

    Many thanks to the Dulwich Centre, and those participating in this forum for a great introduction to this therapy modality. As a Masters of Social Work student I appreciate the flexibility of the Narrative Therapy doctrine to meet the client “where they are at” and its ability to build an new “at” location using client based and accessible data points. Moreover, I appreciate what I see as the scalability of Narrative Therapy and its flexibility to meet the practitioner (student to accomplished professional) at their own skill level. Allowing the practitioner and modality to grow together as one moves from assisting with the exploration of a client’s dominant narrative (thin description) to acting as a guide for a re-authoring that could have profound impacts on an individual’s whole experience (framing of the past, moving through the now, and planning for the future).

    I am excited to continue my exploration of Narrative Therapy under the guidance of the Dulwich Centre, and with the assistance of those also just starting/returning to this program.

    Kind Regards,


  38. I find narrative therapy to be helpful, as this practice is one of the most empowering I’ve come across, to date, By recognizing dominant story lines, and challenging them, we take back our own narrative power. We are all writing our own stories as we live, and interpret our experiences. We all have the power to challenge the conclusions in which we arrive, especially those that empower a negative and limiting narrative about ourselves.
    One of the simplest questions that I ask myself, or others, when continuing to draw negative conclusions, or further a negative narrative: Is it true?
    This does not mean is it true “for you”, this means is it necessarily true. If the answer is no, then there is room to edit this story in a way that can be more self empowering/ helpful in your own narrative.

  39. Hello from Bangalore, India.
    Thank you for this wonderful introduction to Narrative Therapy. The word tapestry resonates so well with the idea behind this form of therapeutic healing, that is not a single thread but the entire weave is what makes the experience. I am so glad at least one form of therapy gives equal credence to different genders, socio-economic strata and cultures when talking about people’s lives as survivors and victors of trauma (and not mere victims) than only a white, middle-class, male perspective.

  40. London-UK

    Reflections on the Narrative Metaphor

    The narrative metaphor offers a framework for social constructionist ideas to be implemented in a psycho-educative way to service-users. I think it’s strengths lie in the commonality with reading novels (which most have been exposed to). It also provides a temporal transcendance to childhood. The idea of the simplicity of texts, at this level, moving along with what one would be capable of during adolescence and into adulthood. By the end of this process, the expectation would be that the ability of the client to produce thick and rich complex stories, would grow in the way that ability does with development.

    Psychotherapy is a developmental intervention. This framework offers a structure through which a practitioner can conceptualise growth in non-linear terms.

  41. Greetings to all from the Netherlands

    I found the Dulwich Centre and this course because I came across the Charter of Storytelling Rights, which I resonate with deeply. Likewise I’m very excited to learn about Narrative Therapy and the narrative metaphor.
    To me this is like a new lense through which to look at my own and other peoples’ life; a way of looking that is not etched in stone but fluid and creative. To become aware of our dominant or thin story and to realize it is a construct (instead of ‘the truth’), and that there are more constructive narratives possible that work for us rather than against us to me is incredible freeing. I was reminded of Erich Fromms work ‘Mans search for Meaning’, how our freedom to choose how to give meaning to our experiences is something that can never be taken away.
    Interesting as well that our own narratives exist within the context of cultural and societal narratives; which can either constrict or strengthen our sense of personal agency.

    I find this introduction to the narrative metaphor and thin and thick stories very enrichening and it awakens my curiosity about the narrative that people in my life have about themselves. And to re-examine the narratives I have about them in order to maintain my dominant narrative.

  42. In my work as a teacher I have seen how young people understand and crave stories quite naturally and how it is possible to use this urge to enhance their learning. In my own life, the power of story has also had a significant influence on my development. In my mid-twenties I hiked the Camino de Santiago from Pamplona and had 33 days, while walking, to reflect. Each day I wrote in my journal about the journey and, nearing the end, I could see how transformative the journey had been. On the trail I had finally had the chance to re-evaluate the experiences of my life to that point. In the months afterwards I took it upon myself to try and write down the most important events of my life up until that point. This exercise continued the process of re-evaluation, wherein I began to see who I was throughout all of the events in my life in a new way. None of this was planned (well, the lessons were planned while I was teaching and I *did* put a good amount of planning into packing my bags for the Camino). My students’ craving for story came naturally, my mind went to the place of story while hiking unbid, the desire to write my life story came from within – this points to something powerful.

    To me, the narrative metaphor is a name for something that humans do anyway – we long for and enjoy stories AND they can help us to understand ourselves and our lives.

    Thank you for this free on-line course. I’m looking forward to the rest.

    All the best from Vancovuer, Canada.

  43. Writing from The U.S.

    Watching the TED TALK on “The dangers of the single story” is what resonated with me for this portion of the lesson. People could really benefit from this talk because we all fall victim to the single story as well as abusers and users of the single story.
    Avoiding the single story mindset takes active thinking to push yourself to be a more evolved human to better your relationships, your way of thinking, and your environment.

  44. Greetings from Kitchener, Ontario, Canada.
    The narrative metaphor allows us to understand how our stories are shaped by our own perspective and the influence of others. I am intrigued by the complexity of story lines and the impact of the rich and the thin aspects of story. It seems the narrative metaphor works to open the individual perspective to encompass the many stories that are part of their experience. The work of Chimamanda Adichie, along with the line diagram visual, are particularly useful in demonstrating this concept.
    The variety of video, audio, and written formats provide an interesting mix for this online learning. The written and audio presentation from Michael White allowed me to experience the information in different ways. Thank you! I look forward to the rest of the course.

  45. This was a solid introduction to the course. I feel that storytelling is an important part of our culture and defining ourselves within our family and social contexts. It is how we interact and engage with others, identify commonalities and form deeper connections.

  46. Dec 19 2018
    Northern Territory.

    When an individual experiences trauma, they change. At the present level of human social empathy and mentality, these changes become stigmatising and are viewed negatively, becoming part of the trauma, forcing the individual/group to the fringes, experiencing isolation…The worst of outcomes. Narrative Therapy metaphor, seems to give opportunity for the traumatised to tell their story, become normalised through experiencing acceptance of extraordinary outcomes from extra ordinary circumstance, including the intricacy of other running narratives from the past, to form healthier and even transformative future narratives. A skilled NT practitioner would be like a godsend for the traumatised who are unfairly judged and stereotyped and garbaged.

  47. The narrative metaphor is created through the linkage of particular events, in line with a particular theme, over time. Emphasising these connections can make sense of events, however by creating a singular dominant story we can flatten our experiences and disempower ourselves by overlooking the variety of stories which exist. Chimamanda’s linkage of power to the single story is an interesting concept that I would like to further explore, as internal and external power relates both to the creation and the endurance of these stories.

    The narrative metaphor encourages practitioners to seek gaps in dominant stories and question what is being told. The concept of thin and thick descriptions is valuable as it directs practitioners to question thin conclusions of the self which are created by dominant, problem-saturated stories. While it makes sense theoretically for therapists to collaborate with clients in re-authoring stories, encouraging practitioners to seek ways to ‘richly describe’ these alternative stories provides direction in practice.

    Sydney, Australia

  48. Hello fromm Turkey where I currently live with my family. Thank you for this alternative way of learning (wich is so closely related to educationnal innovations). I was being frustrated by not being able to learn Narrative practice within a community and here it is!
    As an expat, I can experiment in my day to day life how our stories about ourselves are constructed -which can be good when the story is positive about our skills “I’m this and that; I do this or that”- and how expatriation/migration can de-construct this main story. It is a challenge for a lot of expats to accept to change their stories even tough their new life demands it. I accompany them in this new path. The alternative story is like a new gem found inside you.
    Years ago, I personnaly experimented it when someone, by a few questions, changed the way I was seing my life and made me feel as an author to my life and not anymore as the victim of it. Also, I can see a lot of commun points with NLP and hypnosis which are also my tools and frameworks when coaching.

  49. My name is Paddy Farr from Eugene Oregon USA. Thank you for this course! This is amazing! I have a couple of thoughts.

    The constellation of points, a few of which are plotted within the narrative, explained by Jill Freedman and Gene Combs of Narrative Therapy Chicago, brought up thoughts of Walter Benjamin and Theodor Adorno’s concept of the constellation where ideas are to objects as constellations are to stars. Thus, the narrative which is formed through the plotted points becomes a narration only after the narrator has developed the construction. The narration is only one of many that can be developed by the constellation just as a constellation in the heavens could just as easily have been constructed with a different combination of stars to form a different picture.

    When Alice Morgan writes that “I have tried to explain, narrative therapists think in terms of stories – dominant stories and alternative stories; dominant plots and alternative plots; events being linked together over time that have implications for past, present and future actions; stories that are powerfully shaping of lives,” I am struck by the parallel of Narrative Therapy to the work of Jean-Jacques Lyotard. Where Lyotard focuses on the end of the grand narrative in his “Post-Modern Condition,” Narrative Therapy seems to have the potential to complete that work on the individual level. Thus, to deconstruct the dominant story means to restructure the stories which arise from beneath the dominant narrative.

  50. Hello from QLD! I am currently studying counselling and find myself drawn to narrative therapy for many reasons – the way it can empower people with many different life experiences.

    I work with young adults and through many conversations with them it seems social media is a source of joy and despair – so one of my interests is in this area.

    The stories we tell of ourselves on social media has a huge impact on our identity – how we may see ourselves, how we want others to see us, or how they interpret us.

    Many of the dominant stories of our lives are shared or cemented in social media which do not allow for complexity – it is so easy for people to be viewed in one way due to comments, photos and similar posted online.

    I wonder if this single sided presentation is what we as a society are taught to offer up – to provide a clear identity and direction in life. With so many influences and pressures for people to act a certain way, be on a certain path by a certain age, perhaps the single story is a way to gain a sense of control over who we are.

    Narrative therapy will allow us to understand all of our skills, successes, and stories, rather than define ourselves by one.

  51. Hi, Nicola here from Perth, Western Australia. A narrative to me means the telling of a story which occurs over time. A metaphor is a literary device where you refer to one thing by mentioning another, and by doing so you compare one thing to another or draw attention to their similarities. So to me, the narrative metaphor is where we refer to one’s life or identity as a story. What does this make possible for me personally? Something that struck me was in Michael White’s interview he mentions a young man telling his story to a social worker, who then recounted her ‘take’ on his story. This allowed him to relive his experience from another viewpoint with another set of possible interpretations and emotions – how powerful. And when a narrative therapist listens to someone’s story (the problem-saturated one), they are listening to the ‘untold’ story…the exception…the anomaly…the strong story that is invisible to the teller at that point. By encouraging the storyteller to go into detail about those anomalies the storyteller tells (and hears through re-auditorisation or listening to themselves) another side to their story, some threads to their story that are hopeful and counter to the problem storyline.

  52. Hi!
    I´m Cristina and I’m writing from London.
    I love this course, Thank you for sharing all these materials.
    Narrative metaphor is a beautiful way of understanding human beings as a whole (history, values, culture, life events, abilities, skills…). I have been working in mental health settings for a while and sometimes you can find people seen as a single story. Brilliant the conference given by the novelist Chimamanda Adichie about this and how single stories can participate in the creation of stereotypes.

    It is really important to encourage people to tell their own stories and to help them find alternative stories that might help them overcome life difficulties.

  53. I’m writing from Sydney. I loved Chimamanda’s talk and it made me think about how we naturally make connections between the thing someone has just said, and some pre-existing idea in our head, without necessarily checking whether that is appropriate. I like the way this approach doesn’t define people as one thing or another, both can be true and many other things besides. I found the charter very empowering. Looking forward to the rest of the course.

  54. Hello everyone,

    My name is Minh Thu. I am in Sydney. Learning about what Narrative Therapy is has been very helpful. I especially like the work of Alice Morgan in her book, What is Narrative Therapy. I highly recommend it for anyone who wants to understand more about this technique. Alice offered simplistic explanation in how this form of therapy may look like in counselling and community development. The case examples were also extremely helpful. I believe using and/or keeping in mind such technique would be extremely useful as it empowers the individual/group people we are talking to and allows us to look at the problem as separate from the individual/s.

  55. Narrative Metaphor is clearly depicted by Morgans analogy of driving . This gives a clear picture of relation of negative and positive events in framing our life story. The connecting dots metaphor of Jill Freedman gives a clear picture of framing of our dominant theory.

  56. Hello all!

    I’m Adam and I’m writing this from London, UK.

    I think it’s brilliant that such a comprehensive collection of resources have been pulled together in one free online course – so thank you to the Dulwich Centre! I’m sure many people have and will continue to make use of it and help to spread the word about narrative therapy.

    In terms of contributing to the discussion about the narrative metaphor, I think this and narrative approaches more generally can be so effective because it is something we can all relate to. People are natural story tellers. It’s something that makes us human. It has been a part of our make up for tens if not hundreds of thousands of years and most of us, one way or another, have been engaging with language, and therefore narratives, from a very early age.

    I think the narrative metaphor can be an effective tool for building on the stories people bring into the room. It can provide a way to explore the more ‘problem saturated’ narratives and reframe them to develop richer, more balanced alternatives. It’s a process and approach that spikes my interest and I am curious to learn more as I work through the course.

    I look forward to reading through other comments on here and hearing your thoughts.

    All the best,

  57. Thanks so much for putting this course online and sharing it freely. The idea of narrative therapy is really resonating with me as very important.
    Things that stand out are the danger of a single story, the way we choose (and allow others to influence) our dominant story, the need to curiously be attentive for evidence of an alternative plot to our lives.
    I think these ideas will be very helpful to me personally, but also to those I work with, in remote parts of the NT.

  58. How would you describe the narrative metaphor?
    In my mind, the narrative metaphor is this perfectly chaotic bubbling fluid. Each crew and valley makes the next and at any one moment there is a dominant peak. I enjoyed reflecting on my own dominant narratives and the role that my own development and journey, in particular the connections to people and places, has played in bringing a particular story to the surface. I also liked reflecting on this metaphor as a global concept, that our stories in relation to others is just a story, nothing more, and one of many. I like the space for flexibility and accomodation this allows for.
    Thinking in this way gives me a sense of hope in relation to some major political, social and environmental issues that I care deeply about. It removes a sense of finality and indisputable truth. In my practice, it gives me a way to give my clients the space and power to be the ones to make these changes, on their own individual lives but also on this broader social scale.

    Lucy Wollongong

  59. The Narrative metaphor for me described timelines and themes of events that link and often reinforce together a persons story.
    Thinking about stories in this way i reflected that there is scope for creativity to utilise perspective such as using small figures, asking someone to read or interpret out story etc

    • Cheryl Penn: Artist/writer/lecturer/motivational speaker, South Africa. As an artist who is engaged in workshops/lecturing dealing with art tools/subject matter to access instinctual creativity and conceptual thinking, the narrative metaphor is vital in understanding what underpins peoples approach to any sort of creativity and/or creative thinking. Narrative Therapy is essentially the power of story telling to personally understand identity, problems or a particular life view. Thin, or for that matter ‘thick’ stories are particular sorts of information and experiences which govern the way we see things. Nudges towards a new/richer plot are used to encourage a far more generous version of information about our lives than we currently experience. A story told through experimental art and/or through written words gives the narrative physical evidence. To speak is to verbalize and to realize, but to paint and write using the same narrative nudges somehow makes reflection more meaningful (in my experience!). Narrative Therapy has definitely enriched my course material in that it gave me the tools to uniquely connect art and therapy.

  60. The narrative metaphor to me highlights how each person can embody various ways of being and acting. We are not just one ‘person’ we are able to tap into many different characteristics depending on which storyline we are following. By recognising and developing our many stories we can become more empowered.

  61. The narrative metaphor, as I understand it at this point, is the notion that people digest their reality and understand themselves and others through story. It is also the understanding that, for a reason that is not yet completely clear to me, we tend to cling to a single story. Maybe it’s easier? Maybe the single story is a powerful well-structured one that is clear to us? Maybe it was born out of urgent necessity for sense and provided comfort through its internal logic, a calming simplicity which one is naturally reluctant to let go of? Maybe it was reinforced by people who were meaningful to us? Based on this understanding, the narrative metaphor encourages us to pay attention to this story’s periphery, to listen for divergence, for complexity that can be used to thicken the plot or create new stories. It is also a tool that gives us the opportunity to take a step back and recall that we are not only the main characters of our stories, but also their storytellers, writers and editors.
    The dominant stories I tell me about myself are often quite rigid and severe. Inviting the narrative approach into my thinking gives me the possibilities of agility and playfulness. It enables me to listen to softer stories that I may already be trying/wanting to tell; stories that are not heard because they haven’t been given the space, time or attention they need to be fully told. It invites curiosity and creativity into my personal storytelling, and reminds me that memory, reality and truth are not set in stone. They are shaped by the voice and tone I use to tell them, by the circumstances in which I allow/invite them to emerge, by the words and structures I choose to tell them through, and by the roles and dominance I give certain elements (characters, events, etc.) within them. The narrative metaphor gives me the possibility to continuously challenge, create and get to know myself by experimenting with the ways in which I interpret my life.
    I’m writing from Ramat Gan, Israel (:

  62. Having commenced a Masters of Counselling which is based in post-modern epistemology and therapeutic approaches which are embedded in the this epistemology. Clients as the expert in their own lives – Just as they have the glue to become stuck, they also possess the solvent to become unstuck.

    What I find liberating about Narrative Therapy is it’s focus on engaging in conversations which are collaborative and non-pathologizing. I enjoy the process of listening to client language and stories and deconstructing dominate narrative – thickening stories.

    • The narrative metaphor, as I understand it at this point, is the notion that people digest their reality and understand themselves and others through story. It is also the understanding that, for a reason that is not yet completely clear to me, we tend to cling to a single story. Maybe it’s easier? Maybe the single story is a powerful well-structured one that is clear to us? Maybe it was born out of urgent necessity for sense and provided comfort through its internal logic, a calming simplicity which one is naturally reluctant to let go of? Maybe it was reinforced by people who were meaningful to us? Based on this understanding, the narrative metaphor encourages us to pay attention to this story’s periphery, to listen for divergence, for complexity that can be used to thicken the plot or create new stories. It is also a tool that gives us the opportunity to take a step back and recall that we are not only the main characters of our stories, but also their storytellers, writers and editors.
      The dominant stories I tell me about myself are often quite rigid and severe. Inviting the narrative approach into my thinking gives me the possibilities of agility and playfulness. It enables me to listen to softer stories that I may already be trying/wanting to tell; stories that are not heard because they haven’t been given the space, time or attention they need to be fully told. It invites curiosity and creativity into my personal storytelling, and reminds me that memory, reality and truth are not set in stone. They are shaped by the voice and tone I use to tell them, by the circumstances in which I allow/invite them to emerge, by the words and structures I choose to tell them through, and by the roles and dominance I give certain elements (characters, events, etc.) within them. The narrative metaphor gives me the possibility to continuously challenge, create and get to know myself by experimenting with the ways in which I interpret my life.

  63. So freeing to come to the realisation that we are not what we have been told we are – by our family, society, key people in our lives.. And how we can choose different realities to build our sense of who we are.. broadening our consciousness.. Seems a very powerful approach, orientation, and way of thinking & being. How much kinder can we be to ourselves and to others when we stand in this space?

  64. The narrative metaphore is a way, Narrative practice work, that in the first way tries to add arguemantation, provided for the people cunsulting rather than for an institution, to the main plot of the people’s stories. In this particular way, what this metaphore tries to do, its to enrich people’s stories, in a way that they ‘catch’ a newer perspective about what’s happening in their lives.

    this metaphore warns us about the danger of a single storie telling: Enclousure, struggling, get bogged, presure, an so on. Thats why this therapy works to desolve this matters, and pushes away all, to increase stories and open endings.

  65. The concept of the narrative particularly resonates with me. I’m a social worker who is counselling veterans and their families. They come with stories of trauma and fractured relationships but what I see is strength and resilience. Seeking alternative and thickened stories will help to illustrate their inherent strengths and resilience.

  66. Hello everyone,
    My name is Joanne and I am currently based in Townsville, North Queensland. I work as a social worker at a women’s centre and have an interest in narrative therapy as way of helping people recover from trauma, particularly domestic violence and sexual assault. I recognise that I am very early in my learning journey but already finding much that resonates such as the continual reinforcement of the dominant narrative metaphor (or story) in our lives and how it can be changed by applying different lens or perspectives. Also,the comment about externalising the problem and the solution is sometimes not the personal.

  67. Hi there,
    My name is Celine and I come from Sydney. I have come to the Dulwich Center to learn more about and familiarise myself with the healing conversations of narrative therapy. I am a trained counsellor and psychotherapist and I am currently doing an undergrad in Psychology.
    I find Narrative practice a very powerful method of retelling and reinterpreting our life experiences. I loved Alice Morgan’s text. For me part of the power of narrative therapy is the ability to change our overused and often unhelpful story lines when reliving past experiences. Why are these narratives still running and what purpose do they serve us or our clients? Introducing and exploring new narratives can have such a powerful effect and challenges us to think differently about ‘the problem’. Thinking of stories in this way makes me realise that there are other narratives, gaps in storytelling, strengths and positivity within the self talk of clients struggling with particular issues and that the current narrative is not the only story that makes up this experience. There are in fact several narratives from which we can grow and learn – returning power to the client.

  68. Hello, I am a Clinical Psychology registrar who works across a diverse population. Narrative practices fit well with my way of looking at the world. Life is not a single linear path. A metaphor I often use is that our lives are like a giant jigsaw puzzle. The pieces ultimately fit together but as we build the puzzle, pieces seem to overlap or be missing, or sometimes turn out to be in the wrong spot or the wrong way round. As a qualitative researcher I believe individuals to be the expert in their life, that the perspective of an issue or situation is the truth for that person at that time, and that it is possible to have contradictory views at any one time.

  69. Hello, my name is Athina. I come from Greece, Ioannina. I am teaching at the university. I have also worked in parents’ counselling. I’am also ivolved in teachers’ personal and professional development, recently in terms of narrative practices. I really enjoyed narrative metaphor chapter of this online course, so thank you for this!
    I think of narrative metaphor as a whole paradigm of thinking, feeling and acting. Stories can be a significant resource through which we can make contact with the language of our inner lives and the context within which they are shaped.
    Storytelling encompasses past, present and future. It can be a vital “tool”, permitting a more enriched understanding of ourselves, our lives and organization of our experiences. It reinforces critical thinking, dealing with feelings, exploring and revealing alternative stories, discovering our strengths, taking action and reclaiming our rights and our lives.

  70. Story telling has always been a powerful vehicle for teaching and learning. When I was introduced to the idea of seeing how my own personal story was connected to the archetypal stories of old, some how it redeemed my personal suffering. Each time I look back over my own life I see that I adjust and rewrite it according to what lens I am looking through. For me Narrative Therapy is developing this idea. How to of discover other aspects of our life’s story, that will enhance rather than diminish us.

    • Kia ora koutou katoa, hello to all. My name is Kirsten. I grew up in Rotorua, New Zealand. Now I love in Melbourne, Australia. I am a writer and occupational therapist. After exploring these materials I feel really excited to journey onward! I am thinking about how it is not just what we do as people, but the stories we tell and are told about the “doing” that influence our wellbeing. After listening to the interview with Michael White, and hearing his story from practice, I thought about how open and attentive narrative practitioners must strive to be – in order to hear the events that don’t fit with people’s dominant storylines. When it comes to dominant stories, it seems like we are often such convincing storytellers and such willing listeners! I am feeling some compassion for my elders who imparted damaging and limited storylines to me in early life. I don’t think they had much more available to them. I would love to be part of assisting people to see what else might be available.

  71. Hi, my name is Nic – I am training to be a Guidance Counsellor in Queensland, and am Hard of Hearing myself. I have heard ‘narrative therapy’ a bit in my studies so far, and have come here to learn more, as I am beginning to shape my own approach to counselling. Some key things have emerged from this chapter that I have really engaged with such as the ‘not knowing’, empowering and client-directed approach. My personal goals as a counsellor (and a teacher) align with these ideas in that I believe that clients are the experts of their own experience. This comes from my own experience as a person with a disability – it is irritating when I am told what my experience is (instead of being listened to). I am excited about learning more!

  72. My name is Johanna, I’m a peace activist. I often work with people who have experienced war or experience long-term social, political, economic, and/or emotional exclusion as individuals or groups.

    The idea of narrative metaphor resonates a lot with me and connects to similar ideas that I appreciate in other fields like restorative justice or nonviolent communication. In particular, the idea that we shape our own identity by the stories we tell about ourselves. What I believe about myself is based on which story I pick to describe myself. In my understanding, the narrative metaphor acknowledges the diversity of experiences we make thus the diversity of different, colourful, ambiguous, soothing, distracting (to name just a few) stories we can tell about ourselves. The art, which narrative therapy seeks to support, is to establish openness and curiosity in my heart in order to be able to develop thick descriptions of who I am as well as to see the other person’s multiple stories rather than judging after the first single story that I perceive. I understand it as an invitation to see me and others beautiful with all the aspects that are part of life. And here comes the second part that I appreciate which takes the interdependence of humans and the wider context into account. I do not exist in a vacuum. How I pick the stories that I choose to be my single story is also determined by family, culture, society, history, politics etc. As a member of a family, community, or society I thus also share responsibility in having set the conditions for a person to tell a story about themselves that might not be contributing to life. In my context, I enjoyed reading the Charta and the important aspect of enabling persons who have experienced traumatic events to contribute to others’ lives (I am not sure if that was part of the first chapter or I read it in another book on narrative practices that I am reading parallelly).

    I am curious to learn more about the use of narrative therapy for social change processes.

    And I also would like to share my gratitude for all the comments here which have inspired me. I enjoyed reading so many different descriptions!

  73. I am writing from Dublin, Ireland and am enjoying reminding myself how pervasive and persuasive stories are. In particular, it demonstrates to me how limiting and potentially damaging diagnoses can be.

    Like many others, reading and watching here has allowed me to reflect on my own biases and where I have allowed myself to be captured by the single story and also where I felt uncomfortable about a story but allowed myself to be persuaded to accept it (working in mental health). I hope that I can start to become much more aware of it now as this way of viewing peoples lives makes the most sense to me at present.

    I am also curious about how the insights that we have gained through narrative thinking might influence parenting in general.

    • Hi everyone, my name is Sue and I work in schools with children and families in the UK. I am enjoying finding ‘new wings’ and new ways of using language through the narrative metaphor to de-centre/quest for space and potential. I find this is both a challenge and a ‘homecoming’. I feel a commitment to learning more in every day practice and hope to be able to meet up with practitioners in the UK when possible .

  74. Hi to all my name is Tara-Lea; counselor located in Northern Territory Australia. Very much enjoyed exploring the applications of narrative metaphor. I really likes the idea of finding events that do not fit with the dominate theme, and clients ‘loading’ these events up with meaning – to create and play with these alternative themes – as they become visible. The idea of being curious around the foundations and steps that came before really grounds the new theme. It was really very lovely in high lighting how much choice and agency we have in re-authoring and authoring our own life.

  75. I’m an Assistant Psychologist working in Kent, South-East England. I first came across narrative therapy approaches while working with older people, and I have always been keen to learn more about it.

    A basic explanation of the role of a therapist is that they are able to listen to a person’s description of their situation, and help them to see the’outsider’ perspective on the situation, offering alternative explanations. Too often, I think, we can take control of the therapy room and remove some of the power from the client, coming to conclusions ourselves and offering these to the client as solutions. Narrative therapy is necessarily more collaborative, with the therapist retaining some of the detective role, but giving the client more agency in their role as story-teller.

    On a global and political scale, we are forever being reminded of ‘The danger of a single story’. Listening to Chimamanda Adichie, I thought how lucky I was to have been brought up so open-minded, but while reading about thin description I realised just how many single stories I hold about my friends, my family, and myself. Are the stories we give about who we are multi-stranded, positive and empowering, or are they limiting and bland? I’ve noticed that I often give a very thin description of myself, and when I don’t have much to say I start to think that I must be very boring!
    It struck me that it must be very hard to know what to say in your first meeting with a therapist: in this situation, maybe the thin description is a very good starting point.

    I’m looking forward to the next chapters!

  76. Hello there, I am hailing from Calgary, Alberta Canada.

    This segment really had me thinking about how refusing to be informed by one story is an act of protest, protesting that a person can be deduced to a singular thread. I am seeing parallels between narrative and Non-Violent Resistance (NVR) in that exploring other story lines is an announcement that the individual, family or group and the therapist are no longer willing to accept a one-dimensional view. I find this concept very liberating and can see an immense opportunity for empowering those who have been dis-empowered by being seen in one way.

    Through this, I can see how narrative can really lend itself to being combined with multiple modalities and frameworks in an effective therapeutic intervention. I am looking forward to exploring how this looks as I move through this course.

  77. Hello everyone. My name is Brenda and I’m a hospice palliative social worker living and working in the beautiful Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada. My work with residents is within a limited time frame. I am able to engage the dying and their families/friends in narratives about who they are and what they have done within their beautiful lives. My greater work with narrative therapy lies with the bereaved and circumstances surrounding their grief. Thank you so much for providing these videos, forums and materials to draw from. I’m looking forward to continuing in this free on-line course.

  78. Hi all!
    I’m am located in Sydney, am currently completely my masters in psychotherapy and work with youth within the community setting. I have an undergrad in psychology and a dip in art therapy.
    I am so excited to do this online course and am hoping to deep my knowledge of narrative therapy and develop some skills to use with clients. I would also like to use narrative therapy with in art therapy processes.
    Walking along side our clients from a place of not-knowing as we support re-construction of their story from thin to thick and rich understanding, sounds like a valuable way to serve others in times of difficulties.
    I can really see this being a beneficial process for individuals from all walks of life at all stages of life, particularly within times of crisis and depression. I also picked up so hints of solution focused therapy and jungian psychology.

  79. Wow, this was a big start for me. I am a teacher, not a social worker or therapist. I spend a great deal of time getting to know students, the changing social structures within the school and the social dynamics of the youths that I work with both as a community and individually. In my position I think that the narrative metaphor is a practice that would allow students to discuss their concerns or hardships more openly, without fear of negative impact. It highlights the importance of the story we tell of ourselves and the power it can weld. Chimamanda Adichie expresses how dangerous and misleading a single story can be, one that youths are so very good at telling themselves. This practice allows opportunities to gather more information, build new meaning and then consider renewed pathways that young people can take ownership and control of for themselves.

    To be able to think about stories in this way, opens opportunities to develop strong positive relationships with the students, as it creates authentic communication allows empathy and compassion to develop and builds trust with the students, which can be a critical factor in assisting them on their journey. There is a focus on positive education or strength based learning in my school and this would link into these focuses as the narrative would allow students to acknowledge when they have operated at their best, shown strengths such as perseverance or overcome different levels of adversity. I feel that this practice has the potential to celebrate our youth, acknowledge their struggles, seek justice (a high priority with the age group I work with), and look to the future in a positive way.

  80. Hi, my name’s Brian and I’m a school psychologist from Sydney, Austraila.

    The narrative metaphor strikes me as an incredibly intuitive way to understand so many aspects of human psychology – the construction of meaning, cognitive schemas, cognitive attribution to name a few. I love how natural it feels, and how we can use concepts that people are already familiar with to re-frame thoughts, feelings and behaviour.

    These concepts provide a framework to explain these concepts to children and adolescents, and the potential to design engaging and creative interventions.

  81. Hi, my name is Glen. I live in Newcastle, Australia.
    Describing the narrative metaphor… How to start? One possibility is that there are many ideas that can contribute to it as a concept. One idea coming to mind is it is a metaphor suggesting that as humans we make meanings out of experiences through our stories. There are so many experiences in life that one story cannot ever encompass its meaning in a definitive or final way. I think the metaphor suggests that we can hold a perspective in which life experiences can be understood through multiple stories that overlap, which allow for ambiguities and contradictions. Another idea is that the metaphor reminds us to be respectful of our common humanity, as our stories are created in contexts which are personal, historical, political, cultural and social. An idea that I find appealing in the metaphor is the encouragement it provides for us to make a place for creativity, imagination and playfulness in our lives. Also, to look for previously neglected aspects of experience that could be drawn on for other stories, or alternative stories, of our lives. I perceive the metaphor suggests that we can try to story and re-story our lives in ways which are respectful, enriching and affirming of ourselves and each other. I would best stop here and move on to the next question…
    Thinking about stories in this way makes possible more possibilities, it encourages me to stop and reflect (as I am doing now) about story creation as an act by a person in time, located in place as a narrator (a character/s act), making a narration (making meaning/s), with a narrative (events and characters put together in a plot of a story). My intuition is that it is an act which we are immersed in constantly, and another is the act of reflecting on it at the time which allows us a better opportunity of respectful, affirming, vital and enriching stories. It encourages me to reflect on my own stories as these inform what and how I understand my own experiences and how I perceive the experiences of others, indeed, my stories could at times inform how I misunderstand or perhaps fail to perceive aspects of the experiences of others. I am drawn to the idea to hold my own stories tentatively (e.g. heavily influenced by culture, and my place as a professional with ‘expertise’), as these could be limiting, to remain curious and patient! If I am thinking that I understand someone’s stories and I “get it” (understand), it is better to pause, reflect, offer my perception/s and thoughts / ideas and invite comment. I think it makes possible for me a listening and perceiving from a perspective that is very respectful and also aware of my limitations.

  82. Hi, I’m Bernadette from Vancouver, Canada and I’m a Spiritual Health Practitioner (or sometimes called a Hospital Chaplain!) working in a downtown Vancouver hospital.

    I would describe the narrative metaphor as one which is open to all manner of interpretation and am reminded of the story (ancient parable!) of the “Six Blind Men and the Elephant” as each describes what they experience. Each describes what they perceive to be the fullness of the animal yet each is describing a completely different interpretation of component parts of a far greater whole. (Check out YouTube – Natalie Merchant (The Blind Men and the Elephant) who sings this ancient story to wonderful upbeat music!)

    I loved the short video clip of the “dots” and in my work with patients who suffer from mental health illness I have often shared when speaking to ‘meaning making’ how we can connect the sacred dots of our lives. It helps to visually see the many MORE dots that are there which we have not considered and how rich a life we live and how different we can interpret our life as we so choose. It opens my eyes to my own “story” which I speak to in the singular and helps me realize there are many more and how life is multi-storied!

    Listening to other people’s stories is what I am privileged to do each day in my work. However, I love that through this online course I am challenged to continue to listen to the ‘gaps in between’ or the events NOT part of the dominant “thin” story and to visit these events with my patients to explore together and help co-author an alternative story. As was so aptly coined “There is a TAPESTRY of stories” in us all!

    Thank you Dulwich Centre for this course!

  83. Hello,
    I’m an occupational therapist writing from Hobart, Tasmania.

    How would you describe the narrative metaphor?

    As we go through our lives, we create memories and events. We link these memories and events into our stories, our way of viewing the world and our own identities. When stringing this story together, we can often miss the complexity of memories, focusing on the key moments that ‘fit’ within the paradigm of the story. The narrative metaphor involves looking at all these memories, those told in our stories and those that which we tend to ignore to create a richer story which represents our lives more holistically and creates new possibilities.

    What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?

    As an occupational therapist I have seen people link elements of their identity to create a learned helplessness, where they I identify that because of having a disability they are unable to participate in activities. Setting goals can be difficult as the client does not acknowledge that there is possibility for change. I see that by supporting a client being able to re-examine their lives and identify, it creates space for hope and setting new goals.

  84. I’ve been interested in Narrative Therapy since I first learnt about it in my undergraduate degree, and have now come across it again in my postgrad. I’m a domestic violence counsellor in Perth, WA, and am drawn to the externalising aspect of Narrative Therapy as a way of working with women who have experienced DV. What strikes me about this therapy is that human beings tell stories all the time without even being aware of it, and that in therapy this is particularly notable. The concept of dominant stories and the meanings (often negative) attached to those makes a lot of sense. Being aware of and drawing attention to all the other stories that are often subservient can create new understandings and perspectives, which I believe, can empower people to see themselves and the world in a different and more helpful way.

  85. Howdy, I am Jake from the Yorke Peninsula in South Australia.

    I heard about the Dulwich centre at Unisa when I was studying to be a social worker and I was shocked to find out it was soo close to home for me.

    How would you describe the narrative metaphor?

    Multiple Untold stories with a world of possibilities with new outcomes, solutions and endings. Chimamamnda’s ted talk was very eye opening to me and showed that different stories have different impacts. I found it quite interesting how people perception of a culture can be made by watching a world vision aid of poverty in Africa.

    What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?

    I’d like to think looking past the diagnosis or “label” and seeing the person through other stories that may or may not be untold to be very therapeutic and strength focused. Maybe finding some untapped potential or resources in the process.

    In life we can use different lens to take photographs, surely we can do the same in therapeutic counselling.

  86. How would you describe the narrative metaphor?

    For me, the narrative metaphor can represent and support the bringing into consciousness of the diverse experiences and capacities we have as humans. Most of the time, we identify with narrow perceptions of who and how we are in the world. These perceptions are not always ones we have chosen. Our society often forces us into narrow ideas about who and how we are and can be. This makes it difficult for us to imagine ourselves in a way that connects us more to ourselves, to others, and to cultural contexts and histories. The narrative metaphor works to draw awareness to the thin descriptions that inform how we relate with ourselves and our communities, by highlighting unacknowledged moments of survival, triumph, creativity, capacity, and by facilitating a space and a relationship in which new descriptions and stories can safely take place.

    What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?

    Thinking about stories in this way helps me to see the everyday ways in which I create myself, and the effects of the “self” I create. This awareness means that I can check in to see which stories benefit me in terms of the relationship I have with myself, and in terms of the ways in which I relate with those around me and the world in general. As a woman with significant privilege, the stories I create about myself can mean that I turn a blind eye to realities that make my life easier and the life of people experiencing marginalisation harder. This contributes to the maintaining and strengthening of systems of oppression. Paying attention to my stories, developing rich and dynamic stories can support me to shape myself so as to develop truer connection with the lives around me, and thus with my own.

  87. Hi everyone,

    How would you describe the narrative metaphor?

    To me, the narrative metaphor is a way of hearing, understanding, and contextualizing how people see themselves in the world and how they present this idea to others. It’s a way of living life in the depth of narrative and being able to differentiate characters, settings, plots and timelines in order to reveal a clear picture of who we are, where we are, and if need be, how to change these things.

    What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?

    I found the section about hearing multiple stories very interesting. I, along with many others, have been guilty of hearing only one thin interpretation of a person and making judgments based on these interpretations. This is clearly not the entire story and should not be the basis of how we see people and events in our world today. I am going to take that into consideration when talking with people throughout the day and hopefully begin to have interactions with people layered in a far more rich understanding.

  88. Dear all,
    am writing from Rwanda,
    i am thankful to the Dalwich center for this online course, it has been for a great importance for me as a clinical psychologist.
    as a therapist this narrative metaphor made me realize that we all carry stories and they have a great impact on our lives. it awakened me and reminded me that i must always be curious and search for an opportunity to pass by a different direction to attain the alternative story but with the significant role of my client/patient.
    i enjoyed the video of Adichie, if everyone would cease to listen to single stories, we would all say no to stereotypes.
    Thank you

  89. Hi there, I’m Alicia from Perth, a practicing behaviour change counsellor. This chapter reminds me that the clients I see have multiple stories and I do them a disservice if I view them only from their dominant story and reflect that story back to them. The single-story approach may be “easier” on the therapist, but personally, I find it terribly dull.

  90. Hi I’m Camille from Toowoomba. I work as a speech pathologist in mental health.

    I see in my clients great difficulty in telling their stories and so am so interested in Narrative Therapy as way of empowering clients to share who they are and the journey they have been on.

    The narrative metaphor allows meaning to be created from seemingly random events and for difficult and painful experiences to be externalised, named and processed.

    I was heartened by the idea that there are many stories and that it is unhealthy for their to be only one, dominant story that does not take into account the complexity, uniqueness and strengths that people possess. People’s stories need to be told!!!

    • hi Camille,
      yes, beautifully said! it makes the world too flat, this dominant stories!

    • Hi Camile! I love your response!

      I visit Toowoomba, I lecture at the University in the Creative Industries. I was unaware that speech pathology in mental health was a position, I have just read a little more about it. What a line of work to be in! Very inspiring. I would love to know more …. if you felt comfortable sharing with me.



  91. Hi, Guys, this is Jim from China.

    I have been practicing Narrative Therapy as a Psychological counsellor. The things I find particularity interesting is that how people are fascinated in narrative their stories in a negative way when they are feeling bad, when life is difficult. It occurs to me that people are so sensitive to bad things as it is a basic instinct of our mind, which is to identify problems by which we can better survived. It seems like a bad instinct of our mind.

    I find it not as easy to narrate a new and convincing new story for patient, especially in a culture where reality, like poverty and poor health condition is on the focus of people’s mind.

    The narrative therapy, to some extent, with a new view to one’s life, will be easily interpreted as “Mindful Victory” but not a real story.

    We have to keep on the new story and enrich it from time to time as a therapist.

  92. Hello, I am a social worker based in the UK. My key areas of practice have been advocacy alongside young people seeking asylum in the UK and women who have been subjected to domestic violence.

    I am grateful for this course being made available for free and also for the reflections of other participants which adds a real depth to my learning. The intro unit has been deeply thought provoking and energizing for me and has left me with a lot to reflect on. The emphasis on social context and injustice is both reassuring and refreshing because other therapeutic approaches I have explored often seem to overlook this and therefore seem to run the risk of pathologizing behaviour and internalizing experiences of oppression. It’s exciting to be learning about an approach that externalizes and contextualizes problems in such a considered way.

    Chimamanda Adichie’s talk and Alice Morgan’s extracts got me thinking about the thin dominant public narratives about refugees, spun by politicians and media in the UK and about how these impact directly and indirectly on the young people I work with. I am thinking about how best to acknowledge this and to to help facilitate the telling and ownership of richer individual and collective stories.

    The principle encapsulated in Article 1 about people’s right to define their experiences in their own terms feels very important to me. All too often, statutory (government) social work in the UK doesn’t leave much room for this at all which is a big problem! However, I am also wondering about to reconcile this principle with situations where it is important for someone to acknowledge the impact of their behaviour on others e.g. in instances where people have perpetrated domestic violence. Is there perhaps a risk that their capacity to take personal responsibility could get lost in a constructionist approach? I expect that this is something that might be addressed later in the course but I am keeping it in mind for now.

    • hello Ben, I found it very helpful to acknowedge that it is natural response to injustice, to be upset and resist it. rather than to except this as a way the world is. Regarding the thin dominant public narrative about refugees I have great respect and find JR, a French artist, very inspirational. an example of his work>

      I hope my work as an artist helps setting and showing new narratives and counter some of the disruptive and injust narratives we get screamed in our faces. I am looking forward to learning more!

  93. Hello everyone!

    I am currently writing from Kuwait where I work as a high school counselor. I am from Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

    The narrative metaphor, to me, is a constructivist approach that takes into account the many different stories (aka identities, traumas, oppressions, values, characteristics, etc.) that makes a person who they are. The narrative metaphor simply follows the path that the person has walked through, and searches for exceptions and rich stories that can beef up the thin stories around that person’s life.

    Thinking about stories like this has already made an impact on me. I am still learning this approach, but it has opened my eyes to the unspoken lives of my students. We all have stories that we tell ourselves and that have been reinforced by our lived experiences, but we rarely are told of stories that make us better. My hope from this view is to give my students and others around me the confidence to walk in their truth, while also acknowledging the vast and rich stories that make them happy.

  94. I am working in an area in South Australia where the history of Indegenous people is more encompassed in the richness of their stories, their experiences and perceptions. However in those stories one can identify some sparkling moments in their lives. By identifying and exploring these sparkling moments, they are full of motivating points/ stages that can be used as starting points to rebuild confidence and make a new start a possibility.

    • Love this response!

  95. Thank you for this course. I’ve been keen to have an introduction to narrative therapy and this program seems ideal. Covering this lesson helped me to realise how we are surrounded by stories. I am drawn to them. Adopting a narrative metaphor to counselling work makes a great deal of sense to me. I look forward to learning the ways that this can be achieved.

  96. The idea that people live multi-storied lives is such a powerful one!! It creates the possibility of of people living unique, dynamic lives full of possibilities without being bracketed into a category. I am very moved and inspired by the idea of looking out for references to experiences and incidents that do not match the plot of the problem story and using those opportunities to highlight tell and retell the unstirred aspects of people’s lives thus opening up the door for multiple possibilities. While the problem story disempowers people, shining the light on alternative stories and making them richer hands the power back to the individual.

    The example of “good driver/ bad driver” and “skilled counsellor/ unskilled counsellor” are brilliant and straightaway help us see the danger of a single story. Narrative practice opens up the door for really seeing people holistically, respectfully and valuing the uniqueness and connectedness of each of us and putting us all on an even keel. This is exciting

  97. I find this work very powerful. It suddenly makes sense of all the verbiage that is going on in my mind. The mass of conflicting strands of meanings are settling into rough story lines. And i can see how my mind on its own wants to walk the path of a familiar story. And ignoring the other streams of rich and diverse story lines which are waiting to be explored. The Narrative Metaphor for me is in a sense is the exploration of the unexplored and untold stories of our own lives. What I see is an endless world of new possibilities of being. Which i have only a dim memory of – The edges of my known identity. i now have the choice of bringing them into my awareness and have them take their rightful place. I am amazed at how even an introduction to the Narrative Metaphor taps into a spring of strength.

    • Thank you for your articulate and interesting description of your understandings. I very much like the idea that our Self is larger and stronger than we might have otherwise known, had we not been introduced to the idea of exploring some of our personal roads less travelled.

  98. “What would be helpful to you in your context?”, Wow, what an incredible, expansive question.

    In it, includes acknowledgment of time, place, history, limitations, and opportunities. The Narrative Metaphor means to me that there are always countless stories waiting to be seen, expressed or told.
    And these stories may or may not be acknowledged by the cultural contexts in which they are located.

    In the interview with M. White and the writer Barbara Brooks, I agree with the parallel that Narrative Therapy is also very similar to excellent literary works. They both aim to tell the multitude of storylines that each person lives out in a lifetime.

    I am a psychotherapist, freelance journalist and graphic artist based in NY. Narratology is the lens of how I understand the world, practice psychotherapy, and the expressive mode through art & writing of how I make sense of the world.

    Sincere Thanks for making this online course possible.

  99. I am new to Narrative Therapy and just beginning my career as a social worker. I appreciated the reminders not only that a single story can be dangerous and oppressive, condescending and prejudiced, but also that by thinking about how we might fall into the trap of seeing only one story, there is ample opportunity to learn and grow. I found Alice Morgan’s chapters straight-forward and easy to understand, an excellent introduction, and her concepts of thin descriptions, thin conclusions, and problem stories useful. I believe these ideas will help me in my work as a practitioner and the populations that I work with. Out of all these materials, what resonated with me the most were the reminders of the Charter. Even as telling stories, enriching stories, and tapping into a stream of consciousness that allows for intimacy with the self is fascinating and useful, these concepts cannot be taken out of the context of power, injustice, and oppression that affect the lives of both practitioners and those they work alongside. To be reminded that everyone has the right for their life to be understood in the context of what they have been through and in the context of their relationships to others, that the person is not the problem, the problem is the problem, and that they solution resides outside the person, was immensely useful. My name is Cressida and I am living and working in Toronto, Canada.

  100. Hi,
    I am new to narrative therapy and was recommended this training as a place to start by my supervisor. I love the place from which narrative therapy seems to spring from, the person isn’t the problem, how freeing in the face of shame and internalised identities this is.
    I really enjoying the video, all too often I see, hear the single story which is so dishonouring and disrespectful (judging). On Anzac day as we remember and honour those who fought for our country, each and every one of these service men have rich stories, multiple stories of their lives, with powerful pre and post war identities. It makes me curious, I have met veterans in my work, many many years later, some hold the horrors of war, the loss of friends, innocents and ideals and seems to struggle to find life, in hospital with children who dont visit, while others stand tall and proud, survivors of war, men of honour, same stories of loss and horror but also of survival, strength and men who fought and created possibilities for their own children’s futures, children who fill the hospital room, who honour their fathers story and sacrifice. Each having a different dominant story of their experiences of war/life??

  101. Hello! My name is Erica and I am from Vancouver, B.C. in Canada.

    Rather than having one story composed of a sequence of events, our lives are made up of many stories that may emerge and become more prominent at different times and contexts. These stories can change over time as they are influenced by many things, such as repeated experiences that are not congruent with our dominant story. These stories are important and powerful as the stories we hold about ourselves and our lives make up our lives and influence the decisions that we make, and ultimately affect our future.

    Thinking about stories in this way helps me to become aware of the many stories I have told myself and others over the years. Because we have control over these stories, we have the power to change the ones that do not serve us well. This is incredibly empowering as it gives the individual a sense that they can effect change in their lives by creating a preferred story for the future. However, as our stories are influenced by the larger social context that surrounds us, I recognize that we may still be limited by the reality of the societal constraints that we may face.

    I found the first two chapters from Alice Morgan’s book really helpful in providing me with clear and easy-to-understand information about narrative therapy as I have very limited prior knowledge of narrative therapy. I also found the video with the dots from Freedman and Combs’ Dot Exercise to be helpful as it provided me with a visual explanation of the process of narrative therapy and how it works.

  102. I am from Brisbane in Queensland Australia and work with women who have experienced violence. The video detailing Chimamanda Adichie for me described very well the narrative metaphor, in that relying on single stories can result in the creation of stereotypes, a loss of dignity, and an idea that we are not all equal. The explanation of how power is expressed through the telling of single stories was for me very touching, as much of my work is raising consciousness amongst women about the gendered power inequality which is very much apart of the story of violence against women. Understanding the narrative metaphor, along with honouring the charter of storytelling rights, reminds me to be curious of the many other ways in which people can describe their experiences.

  103. Hello all,
    I’m Cathy and I work in Wales, UK. My current involvement is with those experiencing homelessness and those recovering from abuse. I found the introductory chapter on Narrative Therapy illuminating and constructive. The idea of coming to focus on thin stories and thin descriptions of ourselves, especially following difficult experiences resonates deeply for myself and those I encounter. Such outlooks ultimately become draining in themselves.

    Finding alternative stories, starting to explore the multi-faceted nature of our lives and realities, remaining curious and asking questions we do not know the answer to encourages a broadening, an enriching, bringing imagination and creativity back into the mix. I can see how this can build the framework for seeing a different, richer possibility about identify and the life anyone chooses to live.

  104. In my education work with students and young adults at risk, the themes of isolation and disconnection recur, but after reading Alice Morgan and listening to Chamamanda, I now suspect that these themes are ‘thin conclusions’ rather than root causes. As a practitioner who has prided himself on helping others find their own solutions, I have been guilty of perpetuating a single-storied narrative around young people at risk. So this is prompting me to approach my conversations with a far more open stance of curiosity and withholding my confidence in my own skills. Exercising patience, continuing to remain curious and keeping the other person central are skills I am looking forward to practising with the support of this course.

  105. Hello everyone! I work as a trauma counsellor in Melbourne, Australia. Merging trauma-informed therapy with narrative practice has been very rewarding for me as a therapist. The narrative metaphor gives me tools to work with clients and help them externalize the trauma, re-author their stories with a focus on the person they are, and most importantly give them the language to create new narratives for themselves. I will surely be using the dot exercise as it adds visual engagement to our usually verbal practice.
    As a feminist and someone who loves working from a strengths-based perspective, narrative practice is close to my heart. I can’t wait to continue learning through this course.

  106. I work in a sexual assault service in Shepparton, Victoria, Australia and I have found this first Online Component fascinating. I have always worked from a strengths based perspective and this I find combines very well with Narrative Therapy. Of particular interest was the use of thin storylines and the dot exercise that illustrate that there are richer storylines in a person’s life. This way of working views problems as separate from the person is a great non blaming way to work. Also looking at who tells the story – is it the health professional, the family or the person concerned. it is said that the victors write history but sadly the people I work with are often the vanquished. However these people have stories that are often not told and narrative therapy provides a very good springboard for this to happen

  107. Hello, everyone
    I am from Colombia actually I am living in Australia (Melbourne)
    I so glad that I found this online course which can help me to develop a better understanding of narrative practice.
    I am inspired by narrative therapy in the way of the mental health is approached, and how through the privilege of alternative histories the clients are able to transform their realities and identities.
    the powerful tool that I have found is the metaphor which allows a better understanding of an alternative perspective.

    • Hello ALl,

      Leanne from QLD state here. Im really enjoying this course. Narrative therapy is something I know off, and briefly learned about, but not in this detail. Im enjoying how many and complex stories we all have, and im looking forward to exploring the depths with my clients, to give them empowerment.

  108. Hello, I am Jennifer from Dawson Creek British Columbia, Canada. I am also a recent discoverer of Narrative Therapy and the narrative metaphor makes a lot of sense to me. I am currently a women’s counselor of domestic violence and other historical trauma, and I can already see how the metaphor is helpful in working with women, abuse, and trauma. In the future I may be transitioning into family counseling and it is highly useful there as well. I especially like the way the metaphor looks at externalizing the problem versus assigning it to the person, which, it is easy for me to see how this would help in better addressing the problem if we look at it externally rather than internally. I know I have only just touched the surface of the narrative metaphor, and I am excited to learn much more about this!

  109. From what I can discern, the Narrative Metaphor has something to do with the way we tell our ‘problem’ saturated stories and how we start to link up a sequence of events that in turn get turned into a plot with a dominant theme. As the interview with Michael White stated, people don’t come in and say ‘depression,’ they talk about how over the last while they have been feeling depressed and then they list out events to provide evidence of this theme. the job of the Narrative Therapist is to build scaffolding that allows clients to step into less explored areas of their lives- to come up with a different narrative about their lives which will in turn affect the future actions they engage in. This is an incredibly ‘freeing’ concept to think about as it means there is more than one way to look at our past and present and future. It means that the trauma we have suffered does not have to be the dominant story that follows us around like a ball and chain.

    Kirsten Camartin MSW RSW DTATI
    Social Worker and Art Therapist

    • Im Kat from East Anglia, UK. I am a child and adolescent counsellor working in schools. I have found working in the metaphor in general to be very helpful with young people as it enables them to create some distance from the stories they are either describing or playing out with toys/games etc and for the stories to be thought about more comfortably without evoking shame and guilt.

      It is very helpful to add the extra dimension of narrative metaphor and consider how the story they are telling reflects a part of their personal truth in those moments. So often young people make themselves the centre (and therefore responsible) for the situation to make sense of what is happening around them. Being able to understand and actively encourage thickening and enriching of their stories feels like a huge privilege and important part of helping young people to develop and grow.

      Thank you Dulwich Centre for this course.

  110. I have only just discovered the world of Narrative Therapy and am both inspired and excited by the discovery. I feel as though it’s something I’ve been looking for a long time.

    What struck me most about this first section: The Narrative Metaphor, was the Charter, this wonderful notion of formalising people’s rights to tell their stories. In a world where it frequently feels as though stories, like everything else are becoming homogenised; glossy packages produced by the media, or ‘thin’ versions dictated by powerful institutions, which allow for no deviations or detours, this Charter shines like a beacon of hope.

    Article 5 particularly, caught my attention with the phrase “…No one is a passive recipient of trauma.” It made me think about how many times individuals have been relied upon to be exactly that: passive and silent, because their stories may force uncomfortable truths from under cover, out into the open, truths which will demand a response. I thought also of how sometimes we are guilty of assuming we know the story before it has even begun to be told: the stereotyped ideas we may (subconsciously?) hold of the stories of, for example, the battered wife or the refugee and how these must be challenged.

    Like so many others, I am grateful to The Dulwich Centre for this course. I know already that I am all the better for having found it.

    North Wales

  111. Hello All, I’m Michael from Brisbane in Australia. I work with people reintegrating back into the community after traumatic injury that results in lifelong disability. I’m often surprised by the ‘thin’ stories people tell me about themselves and often how negatively these stories impact their recovery. Similarly I’m surprised how often that those around them support these stories, adding examples and detail.
    I have tried to find the exceptions to the ‘thin’ story (and as people strive towards recovery there are usually many exceptions) and help people reweave their narrative. I’m hopeful and excited that as this course progresses I’ll have a better understanding of the theory and practice of doing so.

  112. Hi everyone,
    Thanks for the videos and the documents.
    I’m Loïc, a certified professional coach and a chartered engineer from France.
    In this chapter, there were some interesting ideas indeed, for instance the link between “narrative therapy” and how a writer builds characters, personal interactions, plots, and, sometimes, imaginary worlds and societies.
    On a personal level, it rang a bell on two antipodal levels:
    – An environment where logical (or even mathematical) processes are ubiquitous.
    – A regional background where imaginary explanations, even on very serious matters, are pervasive.
    I just need a little more time to join these dots (and others), hoping that the thread won’t be too thin…

  113. Melbourne, VIC., Australia – Firstly, I have to acknowledge all the hard work Michael White and his colleagues put into formalising narrative therapy. For me who comes from a collective culture where we value both written and verbal history of my people, narrative therapy ressonates well with me. Foucault talked about the narrative of oneself… growing up I was taught verbal history handed down from one generation to another generation, which creates my personal identity of myself. So far into this module I learnt about learning and listening to storyteller’s narrative. Narrative therapy like family therapy looks at the external world and source the problem external to the person. I feel the current over empahisis on mental health (MH) takes away from the external workd’s culpability. But by listening to the narrative of the person we therapist can start to listen to the extentuating social, familial, and social issues that adds to the stress of everyday life. I would be interested to see how “Intersectionality approach” to therapy can benefit us practitioners. What I mean by intersectionality is when different factors intersect to look at “external & internal forces, and learnt behaviours”. I am enjoying it so far.

  114. Our lives are made of many stories that we have created by linking life events into various ‘plots’ that we (or others around us) have given certain meaning to. In doing this we neglect other life events that could have been formed into alternative plots or stories with different meaning. A thin (single) story allows little room to move. Stories that we identify as preferred or more empowering of preferred possibilities can be thickened by identifying more and more supporting evidence from life experiences until they become the dominant narratives from which we act in the future.

    This way of seeing lives – as multi-storied – may make it possible for me to explore people’s lives, my own included, with a degree of objectivity and critical thinking. How were the stories formed? Whose voices were given authority? What reasons might there be for settling for these particular conclusions? Are there other deep values that may have been buried out of sight? This narrative metaphor might make it possible to dislodge even firmly held stories that are in fact causing problems and keeping me or others stuck.

    • Oops… and I’m Lindy from Heathcote, Victoria

  115. Hi my name is Jo. I live in Weston Super Mare in the UK. This material has been thought provoking. It has made me think about ideas of stories taking on a life of their own and how important it is to think about issues of power when listening to the stories that are being said or aired. How useful to be reminded of the wealth found in people being able to use their own words to describe their experience but also to remember that this can be difficult within the context of the marginalised voice or indeed if the language of your choice or at your disposal is one of gesture or image.
    I love the idea of a tapestry of stories and this reminds me of a short film I made with a group of people who had experienced living in long stay hospitals for people with “learning disabilities”. How I had been challenged by the recurrence of stories of friendship, playful defiance and love that emerged from within the stories of sorrow, loss and difference.

  116. Hi I’m Charna and I have recently completed a diploma in Alcohol and Other drugs. I have been fortunate enough to find a employment as a caseworker in a refuge for Women and Children affected by domestic violence.
    I value and appreciate the opportunity to be able to do this online course as I know I have alot to learn.
    The first chapter has already increased my knowledge and I am looking forward to what is next in this course.
    As emphasised in the Single Story video I now realise how easily we do and can pigeon hole ourselves and others into thin stories about who we and they are.

  117. I’m Elena from Macedonia. I’m graduated psychologist and now I’m going to psychotherapy course for family and systematic psychotherapy. Part of the course is narrative therapy.

    I strongly agree with the part that we just have individual with problems and we need to see individual separately from the problem. I like the of de – construction of the story and funding new perspectives to see the the problem and make a re -construction. I found Chimamanda Adichie’s talk fascinating.

  118. Hi, I’m Silvia, a psychologist working in NSW. Just started this course and already loving it.

    The idea of who we are being a tapestry of stories is just so liberating. I mainly work with two different populations: adolescents and carers of children with special needs. Going through the first chapter of this course encouraged me to write a post on my facebook page directed for carers. In my experience, carers often find it very difficult to tell others when there are so many struggles in their lives. It’s not surprising, they fear judgment and rejection. However, what the concept of narrative therapy shows very clearly is that when we give preference to one side of the story, to the single story, we risk losing our dignity, it’s like us invalidating our own struggles, our pain, our not so colourful stories. By doing that, people can protect themselves of being judged, but they don’t acknowledge that our stories are composed of good and bad, of black and white, of dark and light. We must tell many stories in order to get the big picture, otherwise we become monochromatic in our existence.

    Loved the Ted Talk from Chimamanda Adichie, just so powerful. And so true in every way, loved the quote “When we reject the idea that there’s no single story for anything, we regain a kind of paradise.” When we do that, we allow ourselves to be the full picture.

    And I wish I will be able to utilise that concept in my work, to show to people that we are the results of many stories.

  119. Hello, My name is Jamieson. I am a new social worker, working in community palliative care. From the readings, I understand the narrative metaphor to be an approach to the therapeutic conversation which focuses on how we as humans we tell stories as a way to make meaning about our lives. These meanings are crucial to how we see ourselves and how we see and act in the world. It reminds me of the idea of Songlines- that we sing the world into existence. Narrative metaphor allows us as therapists to assist clients to see new stories and meanings, uncovering lost hopes and dreams, based on the lived and neglected events that do not accord with their dominant story. It also seems to highlight the universal within the personal. Quite lovely.

  120. Hello to all. I am Zahra from Mashhad Iran. Thank you for holding this course free of charge. I think that narrative therapy is a great way for people who resist in counseling and treatment sessions,With this indirect method, people find themselves responsible for their own problems and With the help of counselor they can replace their stories with effective and good stories.

    I think various thin descriptions and conclusions can make worse problems, although alternative stories can reduce the influence of problems and create new possibilities for living.

    • Hello, I am writing from Seattle, USA. I really enjoyed learning about the narrative metaphor. I especially enjoyed the dot animation. I am seeing now how narrative therapy can help to change people’s lives and how it is important to help the client see other aspects of their story.I really enjoyed reading and watching aspects of the externalizing aspect.

  121. the danger of a single story as discussed in the video was very interesting-sometimes the stories we internalize actually belongs to a grand narrative.

  122. love the concept of the problem is the problem and not the individual

  123. Hello, everyone. I’m writing from Tokyo, Japan.
    I find the narrative metaphor valuable not only in counselling settings, but also in interactions with people in everyday life. It reminds me to ask myself: Am I casually passing judgements on others based on socially prescribed standards? For me it is a constant reminder to be more aware of whether my attitude is fair. Also, with this awareness, the narrative metaphor provides me opportunities to appreciate the uniqueness of individuals and find beauty in each person.

  124. Good afternoon, I am Diana, from Colombia. I have been very excited about this online course; it has been very interesting for me. As a therapist, I think the narrative metaphor as a possibility, a possible path to go along with each person who comes seeking for wellness. It is a tool for working, dialoguing, thinking and living. Narrative metaphor could be a way of thinking how we build our present, past and future, how we describe our life, how we attribute meanings and live through and across them; a way of thinking us and thinking others.

  125. Hello All!

    Some interesting comments below. Thought I would try and contribute.

    I guess what strikes me after reading / watching this introductory material is the challenge of combining sincereity and genuine interest in the client’s story with noticing the unsaid or alternative meanings. It is always an interesting challenge to acknowledge a client’s perceptions of their problems while facilitating the right environment for them to explore alternatives in a manner that does not make them feel isolated from the counsellor. The dot exercise uses very accessible imagery to show the validity of multiple stories at one time, and I guess this provides me with comfort that the client still has the power to identify alternative stories relevant to them and their current situation (there is probably more than one valid narrative). Overall, the Narrative Metaphor would seem applicable to multiple therapeutic / counselling frameworks.

  126. To answer the question, what might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you, I think that working in the narrative therapy tradition with clients opens a whole new world of possibilities for clients who label themselves “depressed” or “disabled.” I am a clinical mental health counseling trainee (just started seeing clients in August) in Texas and as much as I love Carl Rogers, we weren’t making progress with person-centered counseling (I’m not saying it can’t be done!). It was exciting to see how clients started to think about their lives differently as we thickened their alternative story.

  127. I enjoyed listening to the single story discussion and how stereo types can be formed from listening to only one description of a race country or individual person. There is a need of numerous stories to create a balance and understanding. It is seen that people are the experts in there own lives and have the ability to find their own answers.All stories influence life and the effects.

  128. I enjoyed the video about the “Single Story”. Too many times people are thought of as only having a single story however we should all know from our own lives that we have multiple stories to tell. As a DV Caseworker, I get to hear the stories from women and children and I get to see how people hearing their stories often only hear the single story and not the journey that these women have been through to get to where they are today.

  129. Hi, I’m Fleur from Brisbane, Australia. I work as a counsellor with youth and write poetry when the mood strikes. I see narrative metaphor as a way of engaging hope, inspiration and creativity. It can wake us up when we’re getting tired. When we describe something we’ve experienced using metaphor, we put on a costume and start acting out what we’re trying to describe. The costume is liberating! It’s magic! We have one foot in our real world and one foot in our dream world.
    Metaphor can feel so gratifying, when you find the one that really works – when tested out, can hold the complexity of the issue. It seems to align the issue with patterns of natural phenomena which takes it out of the self and into something like a fable. When someone uses metaphor to describe something to
    someone else, they leap into that space together!

  130. Hi, I’m a sexual assault counsellor from Brisbane.
    I particularly enjoyed the charter about Narrative Justice.
    I deal with this type of situation on a daily basis and found the story-telling rights were helpful to start conversation with young women.

  131. I see the Narrative Metaphor as an opportunity to give the self a voice. I support people in their quest for a career and so often i hear things like .. Mum thought i would be a good Teacher … My Sister is the smart one, i could never get into Uni .. Women didn’t do that in my day etc etc .. Narrative therapy helps my clients to discover other notions about themselves and the contributions they can make.

  132. I agree that the narrative metaphor co-exists with an individuals identity, where we come from, what has made us who we are. Personally, thinking of an individuals story, curious about what’s happening in their own words/narrative is allowing me to see many perspectives on what I was seeing as a single story only that could relate to past trauma.

  133. Narrative metaphors sound much like identities. They describe and define the understanding someone has of themselves and others, and in turn, this affects how they position themselves in situations, and the relationships they have.
    Thinking about stories in this way opens up possibilities for alternative perspectives and untried responses.

  134. Hi my name is Dawn and I am from Mount Gambier, South Australia. I am a Youth Worker. Being of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent the narrative metaphor is my culture’s form of story telling. By using the narrative metaphor as a Youth Worker it will assist my role by sitting with the client and allowing them to tell their story without being judged. It is a more relaxed approach to therapy.

  135. Hello all! I am writing from near from the center of the United States in South Dakota! I am very excited to have this course available to further understandings of narrative practices. I see the narrative metaphor as allowing one to get a better overall picture of someone’s life. When a client comes in, sometimes it feels like we get a summary snapshot of their experiences, and any and all experiences that support what they feel is their primary experience they’re struggling with. However, there is so much more to people’s lives than that. The narrative metaphor allows us to open up a wide array of possibilities to bring into their field of view, allowing them to see, maybe for the first time or maybe remembering again, other stories in their life that were successful or varying from the dominant story they came in with.

    Thinking about stories this way helps me to remain curious as a counselor. It can be quite easy to get “stuck” in a session, especially as a young counselor like myself, and not know for sure where to go or what to ask. But when I take a step back and think about what I am curious about in the story of the client or what I am curious about that wasn’t present, it helps me gain a bigger picture and a better understanding of the client’s life. The multiple stories in peoples’ lives present ways they have handled similar experiences, and how they could again.

    I especially like that the problem is the problem, and that it isn’t the person as problem. So many people I have contact with feel as if to “get better” they need to change some very vital aspect of themselves- and that can seem very daunting and un-motivating. When you remove that gloominess of it, it seems a lot easier for people to overcome things. They aren’t necessarily changing anything about themselves, they are altering their perspective of it or altering their relationship with the problem. By taking away the ownership of the problem, it allows people more freedom to take action.

    • Autumn I also appreciate how listening to stories keeps me curious as a counselor. In addition to becoming un stuck it also release the tendency to move to quickly by increase the contemplative opportunities.

  136. Angela, Jannali NSW

    I’ve really loved this introduction and it has left me feeling really contemplative. I think this is a really generous and gentle philosophy/therapy that allows for the reframing of what can often be very negative stories that have been told, or we have told ourselves. I’m really going to spend some time thinking about my “I am…” statements… where they have come from, what the alternate stories might be, or what evidence may or may not back these stories up. Can’t wait for the next sessions! Thanks guys 🙂

  137. Emilie from Coffs Harbour

    First of all thank you Dulwich centre for delivering this online resource.

    I really enjoyed listening to Chimamanda’s talk about the risk of misunderstanding that can rise from listening to single stories rather that multiple stories. The examples she uses to illustrate her message, all carry such a powerful meaning. As she says “stories can break the dignity of people but stories can also repair that broken dignity”. Thank you for sharing such an inspiring talk.

  138. In my practice as a creativity coach I can see clearly that one cannot build positive change on guilt. If my clients feel guilty for going through a creative block, they tend to postpone the change. The story I hear goes like this: “If I cannot overcome this block it is because I am blocked. In fact I block myself. Therefore I am the only one able to overcome the block. If I cannot do that, it means I am not a good artist and my creative work is not worth anything.” Once they understand that the story can be told differently about exactly the same situation, they start saying something like that: “This creative block is a villain, that can come and go and has nothing to do with my worth as an artist and as a person”. Once they see that the problem is something outside of their worth, thay can change it, because they stop feeling guilty about it.

  139. What really worked in this session for me was “creating” a third person as the problem; educating, influencing and disempowering the problem, how stories when thickened can create new possibilities for the future, how a dominant plot can evolve from a thin description and how stories and plots can impact the past, present and future. Thank you.

  140. Hi, this is Rachael from Melbourne, Australia

    i find it interesting how people tend to narrow down their story and may latch on more strongly to certain events as it building on their story they have made for themselves. Thinking about stories in this way allows for being really curious about exceptions to dominant stories allowing for new stories and narratives to be made.

  141. Hallo. I am from South Africa. i have studied Theology and was always interested in how our story connects with the Biblical narrative. Listening to all the really helpful resources and articles it really sparked my understanding as well as looking away from thin storylines to more enriched and powerful stories that could also, in my context of work, relate to the meaningful and richness of the Biblical narrative. What i am understanding is that for me the Bible is full of stories of peoples lives throughout different centuries as well as through different cultures. When reading these narratives it is if i am sometimes looking through other peoples struggles and pain and see the wonderful meaning and love that is projected and described in the biblical narrative, that gives my life and story, perspective, hope and meaning. For me, reflecting and understanding biblical narrative is a catharsis moment, because i get to look and listen and hear my story, told in the biblical narratives of other people, through other peoples experiences and outcomes.

  142. Greetings! My name is Natalie and I’m residing in Newcastle, Australia.

    I see the narrative metaphor as a process of being able to shine a light on other, alternative aspects of self, identity and our story. To use another metaphor – the label on the jam jar is not the jam. Our minds are fantastically adapted to categorising, pattern seeking, and meaning making, however, we are susceptible to narrowing our focus to a dominant story or beliefs about ourselves. In this regard, the Narrative approach appears to be a lovely, person-centred way to explore the stories, strengths and resources that lay outside or subvert these dominant stories. I particularly loved the Dot exercise as a way of illustrating this process.

  143. Greetings fellow learners! I’m joining you from Kelowna, B.C and (in the spirit of multi-storied identities) I’ll introduce myself as a creative writer and teacher—fiction, poetry, prose, spoken word—as well as a critical care nurse. I am currently in the final stages of my master’s in counselling psychology, and see narrative therapy as a way for me to bridge my two passions: health and story.

    As a lifelong student of literature and language, I was so (SO) excited to uncover remnants of Foucault in White’s work: namely questioning the supremacy of a single view, and an invitation to flip the traditional hierarchical structure of Western psychology by priviledging the unique wisdom of the client (Foucalt’s main tenet is that knowledge is power). In terms of application to my practice, I work a lot with Canadian Indigenous people, and can see ample opportunity to apply Narrative Therapy’s perspective of story-as-medicine. I am really looking forward to diving into this material alongside all of you!

  144. Hi everyone,
    My name is Sarah and I am a provisional psychologist working with young people in a regional NSW town. Thank you for the opportunity to broaden my skills with this fantastic course!

    What stands out to me is the importance of understanding that as humans we have many stories that all work together to shape our unique experiences in the world. The narrative metaphor emphasises the importance of ensuring that we work with clients on their multi-story lives and to assist in encouraging a multi-story understanding to our lives rather than becoming trapped in our own ‘single story’.

    I look forward to learning much more about narrative therapy as we go along the course! I am very new to this style of therapy and am excited to see where it goes!

  145. How would you describe the narrative metaphor?
    I would describe the narrative metaphor important to me as an Aboriginal person and for counselling Aboriginal people because our lives consist of story telling and there are alot of stories and untold stories in out lives to sort out our problems. Narrative metaphor is non blaming approach and centres people as expert in their own lives.

  146. Hi

    Currently studying a BSc in Systemic Counselling here in the UK and I was recommended to look at the Dulwich Centre website by my tutor. So glad I have. I work with recently homeless people who have substance misuse issues and they frequently have a story so dominant that they “label” themselves. They can see no way forward from this label as that is what they make themselves conform to. That is what they are, to themselves. Already I have seen ways in which externalising the problem can make them consider a different story.

    Thank you.

  147. Karen (Toronto),

    I would like to thank the course creators for this great opportunity. As I am in a bit of a financial crunch, I’m happy to do the actual training and then pay for accreditation later. Not a surprise given the social justice bent of the narrative approach, but none the less, big thanks.

    I would describe the narrative metaphor as a way of explaining the meaning making our brains engage in as we live through very complex layered and intersectional networks of cognitive, emotional and physical experiences. I find it empowering to remind myself that the story I’ve created is just ONE of infinite other meanings i could have/can make. Where “stuck” is a metaphor that is often used to describe depression, anxiety or personal challenges, the narrative metaphor is what can help a person navigate an endless array of alternate ways to move out of the stuck position. Often it involves including hopeful takes on lived moments, establishing narratives that can be added to and thickened to help guide people to more empowering futures.

  148. What stands out for me is a reminder that I am limited when I continue to focus on stories that are oppressive. I miss out on the stories that are useful and helpful to me in bringing forth strategies that influence me to move forward with reclaiming my life from the trauma of my yesterday.

    I am living in Mexico which if you asked me years ago could I have predicted that I would have been in total disbelief. I have a thriving practice here where I also incorporate Therapeutic bodywork.

  149. Hi everyone! My name is James Olson, and I am from Minneapolis, MN. I encountered narrative therapy a couple years ago when my mother (a behavioral psychotherapist) introduced the concepts of the narrative metaphor to me in my early twenties. Now, working towards the goal of becoming a psychotherapist myself, I am drawn back to narrative therapy and bibliotherapy. I am a fiction writer and an avid reader of fiction, so both Chimamanda’s TED talk and Michael White’s excerpt about the closeness between literature and therapy resonated with me significantly. I have used these methods of narrative therapy in my own life to disrupt poisonous narratives of addiction, and I look forward to learning more so that I can use these techniques to help others. Currently I work for a non-profit program that puts majority African American and immigrant students in professional settings for the summer. Often supervisors of our teens only hear one story from our interns, and I also look forward to immediately putting these techniques to practice in my current work.

    • Hi James! I am an avid fiction reader and writer too, and also currently training to become a psychotherapist (with, you guessed it, a focus on narrative and bibliotherapy). Chimimanda Ngozi Adiche’s novel Americanah is highly applicable to your work with African American and immigrant students…perhaps you’ve read it already but if not, its on my list of all time favourites.

      I too resonated with White’s articulation of the crossover between the skills of storytellers and those of therapists. According to White, “good writers have a way of actively engaging the lived experience and the imagination of the reader, and of inviting him/her into new territories of life.” White suggests therapists have a similar task. “Within therapeutic conversations it is my task to build a scaffolding, through my questions, that exercises and stretches the families that consult me, and that make it possible for them to step into some of the less explored territories of their life.” I love that image, of therapists as constructing the outline for new possibilities within old thought patterns.

  150. Hello, I’m Isa Carvalho from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. I got interested in taking this online course after the testimony of a colleague that provided simultaneous translation for a Seminar on Narrative Therapy that took place in Rio.

    I’ve graduated in Performing Arts and I’m taking a post-graduation course in Jungian Analytical Psychology, willing to specialize in Art Therapy, and work as a translator.

    I got very impressed by the richness of the Narrative Metaphor and how it can be of great help for therapists. It’s a wonderful advice to ask only what you really don’t know, something that might not be considered as important, but it matters a lot, because it’s a demonstration of respect and kindness that stimulates an attentive hearing towards the ones seeking therapy.

    Also the idea of possible different stories in a single plot, or even different plots for our lives and for the concepts we have about ourselves, and how the family, cultural, hystorical and social contexts can influence our self-image and what we’re going to emphasize in our history. Very interesting! I’m very enthusiastic, looking forward to taking the next steps of the online course!

  151. Hi from the United Kingdom!

    Firstly, thank you so much for allowing open access to this course! What a resource! I am a psychologist, working with children and I have been very interested for a long time in finding out more about narrative therapy so I have set aside some time this summer to explore these pages.

    For me, narrative metaphor is a way of re-weaving a tapestry. The threads and shapes lying in a certain way might tell one ‘thin’ story but it is only when they are unravelled and woven again that other, more ‘true’, richer pictures might come to light. Stories, especially for younger children, hold security in their predictability but can become too defining and restricting for the other themes to grow.

    Thinking about stories in this way is helpful for me, particularly in finding ways to empower and humanise young people’s experiences. Helping a person to understand the impact of context (social/political/historical/cultural) can be reassuring and helps them to see themselves in a different light – as someone who has been resilient and resourceful despite the odds. I like Alice Morgan’s key points about centring people as experts in their own lives – to give them that sense of control using a non-blaming approach.

  152. My name is Carina and I’m from Copenhagen, Denmark. I currently doing my master in psychology and next semester I’m doing an internship at Narrative Perspektiver ( = Narrative Perspectives) where I’m going to follow the work of two psychologists, participating in workshops and having my own clients (under the supervision of a skilled psychologist of course). I’ve taken a course in narrative therapy when I did my bachelor’s degree, but I think this online course is a great opportunity to brush off my knowledge and learn even more! Thanks to the Dulwich Centre for this!

    I’m very inspired by the narrative metaphor and the position it puts me in as a therapist/counselor. I feel it sets my mind free of diagnosing and instead listening with curiosity and empathy to the story the client has to tell. Every response has a purpose even though the response might not be appropriate anymore. That’s why you need to dig deep into the layer of a multi-storied life instead of just accepting a single story as the final truth.

  153. Hi, I am from Sydney and I am excited about doing this online course. I have done a few narrative courses. However, I did them a few years ago so it is great to have a online course available so I can refresh my thoughts and revisit narrative therapy. I love narrative therapy it is amazing how we as therapists do not have to be the person with all the knowledge but we speak about the client being the expert. It is wonderful to be able to help them find within their story, which might start off as thin, the ‘positive thick’ storyline so to speak. To be able to discover with them the skills they possess that maybe they didn’t even know they had. Also, to bring meaning to the more neglected events of their lives.

  154. Hi everyone,
    I’m Britt and I have recently graduated with a Bachelor of Counselling. I have decided to complete this online course as I feel that I need to develop my understanding of Narrative therapy.
    I have been using Narrative practices with my clients over the last 12 months (Michael White’s Maps of Narrative Practice has been like a bible for me).
    I am interested in how power and privilege impacts the cultural and individual stories that are told. Watching Chimamanda Adichie’s ted talk on the danger of the single story impacted how I view individual stories and cultural stories, understanding the complexities multiple stories and remembering that focusing on single stories is dangerous as assumptions could be made on both the individual and surrounding culture. focusing on a single story does not give an understanding of the whole individual and their multiple stories would not be investigated.
    The dot exercise was impacting on me as it allowed me to visualise the complex, rich and varied stories that make each and every person.
    thinking of stories as being many different roads on a map (cross roads, straight roads etc.) and not knowing where we will go with our clients gives me encouragement leaving me with the ability to ask questions and explore the curiosities that will arrive. Allowing the client the option and decisions in their therapy, empowering them to tell all of their stories and separating the problem from the individual excites me as a therapist and working within the community.

  155. I am a clinical social worker in Toronto, Canada and studied narrative therapy many years ago. It was a powerful lens with which to view my conversations with clients and gave me the language and framework to work more collaboratively. I have wanted to re-visit the writings so I can resist dominant therapy discourses when they don’t serve me (and the client)well and provide space for more helpful interactions.

    Love the reminder about the importance of alternative (and often neglected) storylines. The concept of the single story resonates strongly – how we like to box ourselves (and others) into thin stories about who we are. Love the threads between narrative therapy practices and writing.

  156. I loved the TED clip by Novelist Chimamanda Adichie.
    The culturally rich information about the single story was really thought provoking and inspiring. It works really well with ‘thin description’. I’m very interested in the stories of culture and power. Who tells them, what aspects are told and what aspects are tacit

  157. Hi, I am Dzung from Vietnam but just call me Emily. It’s easier 😀
    I have arrived here in Adelaide to study Master of Disability Policies and Practice at Flinders Uni. This is my first semester and I will take Conselling Topic in this semester. It is very kind that my topic coordinato sent me the link of this course. Acutally, conselling in general and narrative thereapy in particular are completely new for me and I feel lucky to know this online course. i do hope that I can get some knowledge, skills and lessons learn from you guys. After watching the story, I realized that I sometimes wrote single stories only based on my imagination or sometimes I just rely on one way stories to judge some. It is not only unfair but also makes me misunderstand them. Now I know ‘it takes two tango.

    • Hi My name is Nadia. I am a school counsellor in a senior secondary school. I am interested in learning about Narrative therapy and how I can work with members of my school community to surface rich thick desctiptions.

  158. Mr name is Nicole. I am a therapist in Adelaide. I am currently doing my Graduate Diploma and my focus for a portion of my study is on Narrative Theory. I am enjoying what I am hearing and learning so far and I am excited to help myself and my clients journey through their stories.

  159. What a fabulous online course for me, an isolated rural social worker. This introductory session has opened my mind to the thousands of interlinking stories that exist in rural communities; which are not often explored or put into a context that people can understand and draw meaning from. For me it is the tapestry of life, the different threads and colours and the warp and the weave that create a story and it up to me to allow people to see this richness and not see themselves cast in one colour or as one character.

  160. In my current position I am my first ‘meeting’ of clients is often through their referrals, case notes and files. It is in this context that I wish to discuss The Narrative Metaphor. As Narrative Practices teaches us, case studies and files generally present flat one dimensional ‘shadow’ of a person’s profile. They undermine the complexity and richness of each individual’s life. They do not speak to their social context, their multi stories, possibilities and hopes or dreams. Words are ever powerful and The Narrative Metaphor embraces the richness of multi-storied self, illustrated by potent words and descriptions. It celebrates the journey of un-sung heroes and self-created competencies. As practitioners we are cautioned to beware of the impact imposed by one dimensional story lines and should make it our business to be guided by each individual client and learn from them with an open heart, as things are from their point of view. This is the first step to opening the possibility and creating the space for the richer tapestries of life to emerge.
    In her book “What is Narrative Therapy: Alice Morgan discusses the effect of Dominant stories, alternative stories and dominant plots. She outlines how alternative stories play a powerful role in redefining our lives. These alternative narratives can be strengthened to remind the ‘author’ that they have numerous abilities and strengths that may be ‘put up’ against the dominant story if it is one that is reeking-havoc, demeaning or furthering the experience of adversity. This can be a powerful awakening and it can assist people to manage tough times, through connecting with their own unique strengths. The function of the many possibilities of stories, other than one dominant story line is also highlighted in Jill Freedman and Gene Coombs’ Animated Narrative Therapy Dot Exercise.

  161. So excited to be participating in this training and energised by the first chapter.

    I am in the very early stages of supervision as a provisional psychologist and totally get how I am at the beginning stages of my learning.

    The literature, audio and video information was presented in a way in which all my senses were engaged (especially the hearing of the birds).

    Its perfect timing that I am doing this particular training as I am working with two clients, one adult and one child who are struggling with the concept of establishing new story lines, holding on fastly to their dominant stories that have caused much distress in their lives. The ability to share the idea of the dot exercise from Jill Freedman and Gene Combs was brilliant, providing opportunities to look up and out at the different events and experiences that have been ignored up to this time. The resistance however has been incredible to the possibility of alternatives and I can’t wait to keep expanding my learning to expand my ability to support my clients in their journeys.

    Totally love the concept of curiosity and asking valid questions, not those that just fill in silences. I look forward to remaining curious throughout this training.

    Thanks for sharing your thoughts everyone loving what each of us get out of it.

  162. Hi, everyone I am Sunaina from India I have been following on this Narrative Therapy for months since I got a taste of it.The study has helped me reflect my own story, how each events in my life have influenced/shaped me.Thanks to narrative metaphor to help me see the bigger picture and not just the tiny small picture of my life story.

    Narrative metaphor in my understanding is the re-telling of my stories not just one part but every part in a more powerful way. Where the thread of story line is seen connected “across time” since the day I was conceived till now. And where every life events is considered significant.

    In looking at life as stories-telling approach it gives the sense of ownership/authorship to the teller. Where he or she has the power to take the story in any direction and in this context in a positive hopeful journey. Thus for me I would say Narrative Metaphor is a “non-harming” steps toward helping people see life purposefully.

  163. Hello, I am Michael from Adelaide.

    I found this introduction to Narrative Therapy extremely refreshing. It helped me to make sense of my past and inspired me to continue on the path I am currently on.

    Specifically, this introduction ignited thoughts about people’s identities and how changing one’s identity can be helpful and useful in a therapeutic context. For example, if a recovering drug addict comes to see someone for therapy, it might be useful (after some time has passed and the person has dealt with the addiction) for the person (and people close to them) to no longer see the individual as a ‘recovering drug addict’, but to see them in a different way. A person could be a ‘recovering drug addict’ for years, and may even go back to the drugs because of this identity. It may be wiser for the person and people close to them to think of them in a different way. They could change their identity based on other things they do; for instance, they could say, “I am a carpenter”, or, “I am a husband” (or a wife), or “I like to eat pizza”, or “I am a funny person”. In this way they have changed what may be a problematic identity into a more useful one.

  164. Hi all!! I am writing from Sydney….I found this first lesson very interesting as we dive into the Narratives perspectives. I had a little contact with Narratives back in Brazil in 2005 and now I am finding myself “curious” about what else can I learn, explore from this experience. For me the highlight of this first lesson was explore the Alternative stories and assisting clients to also explore and experience themselves other than their “thin stories”, Powerful!

  165. Wow! A chapter full of smart insights and worth thinking about it. I’m Spanish, from Madrid, Spain, and I have felt exactly what Chimamanda Adichie describes: Spain seen as an underdeveloped country and almost not part of Europe for some time, time when I lived in the USA and I had to listen to so many critics. And my story was different to this one. Spain for me was sun and fun and amazing people willing to share. And when I grew up and undretood the other point of view, my story grew too, and became better and more productive.
    I love telling stories and listening to other people’s stories, this enriches me so much and makes me a better person and counselor. And here is where it comes the narrative metaphore: I deeply believe that when we narrate our story, we are able of telling things that in any other “format” we wouldn’t tell, because of fear or not wanting to be judged. So the plot, the theme, the timely sequence helps us structure something that any other way may seem impossible to organize and retell.

  166. Hi, I’m from Sydney, Australia. I see Narrative Metaphor as a means of exploring stories and building alternative stories. As someone who is just starting to explore narrative therapy, I can see the benefits for a client to, not only tell their story, but to develop an awareness of their story’s meaning. Through sharing their story, I see that an individual can open themselves to a richer description of their life.
    I thought the presentation by Chimanda Adichie was brilliant and reminds me that we should not rely on a single story and that we need to engage with all the stories of the subject (person/place)

  167. Hello all. I write from Cairns, Australia. The narrative of my life is that I have lived in different world locations across decades of life and that I am a multistoried person with a desire to understand the same in others.

    As a nutrition counselor, I see that the narrative is often limited to what people eat related to the health risk of that story. But food is such a rich part of our lives that the story needs to include a universal view of why, what and how we eat what we do.

    The narrative metaphor allows us to see ourselves and others in creative tangents like a drawing of hills, valleys, and oceans to cross. We are heroes that can be read and drawn in the storyline of our own lives.

  168. The narrative metaphor is a way of animating the of stories of our lives., so our world becomes a three-dimensional holographic novel. Our curiosity helps us find alternate stories and explore various points of view. We pay attention to the multiple stories that create our world and we create. Re-inventing ourselves and our lives as we go along. By thinking of stories this way, a world of possibilities with infinite opportunities opens giving us more choices and more control over our lives. As a child, I thought my life was a movie that someone, somewhere was always watching. My behaviour fuelled by emotions I didn’t understand. Often wandering if the people watching understood something I was missing. My curiosity made me venture past my ‘self’ and others. Which led to questioning everything. With an insatiable appetite for knowledge, I walked around plot lines, looking at the characters, places, events and emotions, curious about what happens if I do this, or that.
    The narrative approach is useful in practice as the emphasis is on understanding and searching for the meaning of events and behaviours as precursors for actions. As a result, narrative therapy is essentially a corrective experience for the client because it helps the client assess how the problem affects their ‘self’ and others, decide what they want to do about it, and develop strategies to cope with it in the future.

  169. Hi,

    I’m Janet from Sydney, Australia.

    I’m interested in the idea that there are many possible stories however we choose and others around us who make meaning of our actions choose to privilege and pay attention to only some of these stories. I was particularly interested in the idea that thin conclusions are often made by others, rather than by the person who is experiencing the problem.

    Thinking about stories in this way will make me more aware of what is not said, what is left out of the narrative and how important this information may be in reshaping or thinking differently about identity and meaning. I will now be listening more for the alternative stories and the information that may make sense of a person’s behaviour and the problem they are experiencing in a different way that gives them access to more hope and possibility for positive change. Hopefully these alternative stories will also help them to understand their identity in a way that resonates more authentically with them and is not problem saturated.

  170. The dominant story is like a ball of yarn and narrative questioning represents the knitting needles that unravel the yarn to create something beautiful. As humans, we often hold on tightly to the ball of yarn, refusing to imagine that it can become anything different. Narrative therapy shows that the yarn quickly unravels when we let go of the ball and allow for the other possibilities, the “alternate stories” to unfold.

    The idea of making room for the “neglected stories” is so important. The Narrative Metaphor has taught me to look at situations in my own life that have been “problem-saturated” and step outside of them into the “unexplored areas” that have been overshadowed by the dominant story.

    Bellingham, Washington

  171. My name is Emma and I am an academic from the South of England. Before I joined academia I worked in social care with vulnerable families, and now I use narrative psychology to research experiences of parents and children facing adversity. I am fascinated in how the narrative metaphor enables people to express their own unique family culture, through the experiences which have surrounded their lives. I’m really interested in how we can re-author our stories and see this as a powerful mechanism for helping families come through crises – I’m exploring how families cope when they receive high handed messages that their family culture and practices need to change – but in ways which may not resonate with them. For me narrative is a way of understanding people’s past and present, and enabling them to co-construct a future idea of themselves. I loved Chimamanda’s TED talk – people never have just one story…I must narrate several versions of my own everyday!

  172. I would describe the narrative metaphor as recognizing and understanding that there are many different stories that make up our lives. There may be themes that we focus on, but we must not forget to look at the other themes and perspectives. We are not 2-dimensional, there is so much to every one of us that you cannot possibly sum up our lives in just one narrative. We must use many.

    Thinking about stories in this way helps us get out of distorted ways of thinking. Often our distorted thought patterns are caused by focusing on only one aspect of ourselves and making it much larger than it is, while disregarding other aspects (or stories). An example of this is magnification where we magnify negative details, while filtering out all of the positive ones. We can combat this through the narrative metaphor when we realize that there are many more stories than we previously thought. Drawing attention to these alternative stories brings them to life and allows us to see the bigger and more complete picture.

  173. I’m writing from Calgary, Canada.

    I’ve found the narrative metaphor incredibly helpful in my own life – using the idea of finding the alternative stories, the ones that challenge the dominant “thin” conclusion, has been really helpful in reframing my own responses to trauma and neurodivergence. I use a lot of these strategies in my work as a coach, and I’m hoping to become a counsellor. The non-blaming aspect is particularly helpful, and the idea of rich, multistoried lives even for those of us who have experienced trauma and can feel trapped in those stories.

  174. This material encouraged me to reflect that our ways of making meaning often favour one perspective, and as a result can often ‘push out’ other co-existing or alternative meanings and interpretations.

    In my work with children who have experienced trauma, it has reminded me of the importance of making the whole child visible. This means facilitating alternative stories that no longer define them by their experiences or by their behaviour. Working alongside the important people and systems in these children’s lives to explore alternative meanings and thicken the identities and stories of these children’s lives is central, as is working with the child to bring out their playfulness, their personality, and their essential ‘themness’ that makes them both similar to others and much much more than the sum of their difficult experiences.

  175. Hello. Iam Natália writing from Porto, Portugal.
    I would say the narrative metaphor is like poetry: you can add words (stories) to each other and create beautiful, intense meanings… and even when many people read the same poem they will interpret it differently… bringing a bit of their own being to that interpretation…and even the same person, in different times in her life, may interpret it in another way: adding or changing meaning to the poem.

    Working with Anxiety issues mainly, I tend to choose cbt as the main intervention. However there are clients that don’t “fit” this approach… either because they are more in tune with their inner selves, more descriptive and less analytical, more sensitive or they are storytellers.
    I believe the narrative approach is an option that answers the needs of these clients.
    Enabling the process of storytelling, in an open empathic way, opens a multitude of meanings, by which people can signify their life events. For me it is almost like promoting a new insight into our lives. Sharing and telling to others gives the possibility of adding new perspectives about experiences, helping us become more flexible and adjustable to life and its contradictions.

  176. The TED talk with Chimamanda Ngozi Adiche was extremely powerful and being an avid reader and aspiring writer myself it made me think about extending the various types of books I am reading with my two children. Her comment “How impressionable and vunerable we are in the face of a story – particularly as children”. I do not want them to think of a certain race as per one book they have read or stereotyped. This will not help them understand the narrative metaphor – many stories make many beautiful adventures.

  177. Hi everyone. I’m currently in Sydney NSW.

    For me, the narrative metaphors is conjuring up this glorious permission to be curious. For opening up a space to identify and explore all of the stories that are our experiences. Through looking just beyond, we can allow ourselves to move away from those single, dominant and/or problematic stories, and invite ourselves to become both more aware f and curious about the whole self that exists in our experiences. And through this multifaceted approach to stories we begin to explore, negotiate and listen too deeper meaning.

  178. Reflecting on the Draft Charter of Story-Telling Rights I quite agree with the idea of allowing others to express themselves and their stories in their own words. I find that when talking to my own clients that if I pick up on and use the language they do that it is easier to generate a rapport and the conversation flows more easily.
    It is easy for a disconnect to occur when I get caught up with my own ideas and understandings of a clients situation.
    The rights in the charter all seem to reflect the need for caregivers to listen and enable self-expression.
    In the context of Suicide Intervention, I did the ASIST training yesterday and it included the Pathways to Assisting Life (PAL) model. One of the essential steps in the model is to Hear their Story, you cannot find the turning point for the person at risk without first listening to their story and then asking questions to find their connections to life. The person at risk may disengage from the conversation if you allow your own values and judgments to creep in and don’t see things from their point of view.

    Each of the articles in the Charter seem to reinforce what is also needed when doing suicide interventions.

  179. I would also firstly like to thank Dulwich Centre for offering this free narrative course online. Thanks also to David for taking the time to introduce the Friday afternoon sessions with the explanation of the place, history and traditions of the Fri afternoon sessions. It was very fitting to get all the additional information as part of the discussion about the Charter of Story-Telling Rights. Freeman and Combs’ dot exercise to build on the ‘thin’ story and Chimananda Adichie’s talk about ‘The Danger of a Single Story’ are both so relevant today as the business of life can so easily mean we look at the single story and respond instantly, without being curious enough to seek more detail and explore alternate stories. Tamara (Geelong, Australia)

  180. I am compelled by Freedman and Combs envisaging of the potential of narrative therapy for not simply solving an isolated/particular ‘problem’ but for giving people a vehicle to explore new ways of living as a whole.
    It is helpful to be reminded of the many and varied external factors that can influence the thinking of an individual. Helping people to ‘story’ these influences and giving dignity to their story is not only beneficial to the individual themselves but may be useful in helping them to have broader perspectives in regards to their perception of and relationship with others. I am reminded of Wheatley’s comment, “You can’t hate someone whose story you know”. Coming from Northern Ireland, and living in a community influenced by a legacy of conflict, I am interested in the possibility of ‘storying’ for divided communities too.

  181. G’day everyone,
    I currently undertook a unit in the theories in counseling and psychotherapy,and although the postmodern approaches were covered, it was after the units reflective journal and essay. This had made me critically examine Beck’s cognitive theory, and in particular the use of schema(mental representation of events)-change methods. As the collected data on schema changing appeared to be convincing as an effective treatment, although the assumption of a “cognitive distortion” or a maladaptive core belief did appear to be at the discretion of the therapist. The therapist is then asked to persist in arguing this belief of the client (Persons, Davidson & Tompkins, 2001).

    This therapist controlled situation felt to me to be a hindrance in the therapeutic treatment of Cognitive therapy, making an uninformed judgement (or thin description) of the client, and contributing to the blame society.

    The Narrative Metaphor to me represents the acknowledgement of social injustices, without the accusation of delusions or dishonesty. In a cognitive view on Narrative therapy it may be explained be the story being the schema, and the problem saturated story as a cognitive distortion (although this I feel should be replaced with “dominant schema or story”). This still appears to be more complete with the assumption that the person is not the problem, the problem is the problem, or a victim will always “own” being the victim, and not a survivor of a problematic situation.

    As I am still studying, critically thinking in a Narrative way will play an influential part in my future assessments.

    Thank you for the opportunity to write on your forum,
    Cheers, Shane Thomson
    (raised in a major city in WA. residing in a rural city in WA)

  182. After thinking for a long time that I wanted to explore narrative therapy, I am so grateful to have found this page and this this on-line course!!

    I see narrative metaphor as an opening to the world around oneself, so often we see our journey and that of others as one way or another but in actual fact there are so many perspectives that can been seen. A bit like a kaleidoscope depending on how you move or view the picture your story can change or can form greater meaning/understanding.

    To continue to be curious about the other untold stories and knowing that other stories exist, is for me the uplift I need to keep going within my work. To promote change to continue within my workplace that focuses on the rights of the people we are working with but also each other.

  183. The narrative metaphor is a beautiful way to see beyond stereotypes and labels we tend to give ourselves and others. To be able to understand that we are not defined by a singular story is very freeing. I was especially drawn to Chimamanda’s ted talk because I had previously been thinking specifically about the individual, couple or family and had not thought of the cultural context.

    Thinking about stories in this way allows me to have genuine empathy and compassion for both myself and others. I loved the idea of connecting the dots outside the dominant story line to see multiple stories and create rich descriptions.

    I’m writing from Lakeville, Minnesota, USA

  184. The Narrative metaphor resonates so closely with my experience particularly working with children.

    So often the children I work with are referred as a ‘problem’ child or ‘naughty’ child and have had many many thin descriptions pertained to them over time by people in power, such as their parents, teachers, principles, medical professionals so often that they have internalised these stories of themselves and as such have temporarily lost the ability to recognise that they have other alternative stories and other skills, strengths and resources at their disposal.

    I love the messages depicted in ‘the danger of a single story’.
    Power is such an important factor and I loved the statement ‘power is the ability not just to tell the story of another person but to make it the definitive story’.. this is my complete experience working with children, who are vulnerable and not in power.

    People in positions of power in the child’s life have strengthened their thin descriptions and made thin conclusions from these by giving privilege to stories and events that support their ‘angry’ or ‘naughty’ label which completely disregards the students strengths or value.

    I also love that narrative therapy highlights the person as separate to the condition/disease/diagnosis/issue/event- this in itself is so empowering.
    It is amazing how often I speak with children and they think all they are is ‘angry’ when really they are a person who experiences anger.

    Something that stood out to me is the notion that dominant stories are ever changing and constantly being edited through personal experience of attributing meaning, through other people’s attribution of meaning and also the social and cultural context in which the person exists in. fascinating.

  185. I would describe the narrative metaphor as a means of realizing that we are all experts of our lives. Each of us with a multitude of stories; thin and think in description, dominant and alternative in focus and varying in meaning and levels of interpretation. I have been witness to the changes that occur in ones life through the process of narrative therapy. As alternative and unacknowledged stories come to the surface there is such a natural release in grip to the once dominant, problematic story lines. As our attention becomes guided towards the stories that fulfill our sense of connection and life force we are able to open our eyes to see things from a view point we have not yet stood before. A place of respectful, non- blaming openness to the stories of our fellow brothers and sisters travelling through this human journey, under this great blue sky.

  186. Thank you Chimamanda for introducing me to not only the single stories but how they can be related to the more neglected events in people’s lives then how to build scaffolding and step into some of the less explored territories of lives and be on the lookout for multi stories.
    It was good to be reminded of how easily we can become patronizing, express pity and assume and therefore misunderstand the single story.

  187. I really enjoyed the various audio and texts introducing the narrative metaphor – such a wonderful device for conceptualizing the way we talk about our experiences and our *life*, and what we give meaning and attention. I am aware of making links with other therapeutic approaches and concepts, and understandings within psychology. For example, the idea of rumination in depression – when we can’t move away from particular thoughts or a particular set of memories which sit with our depression, this is similar to the notion of a dominant story which is ‘problem-saturated’. I think the narrative metaphor would help clients become less overwhelmed or stuck in a negative self-story – similar to a mindfulness or ACT approach where we try to visualize thoughts as external, and have the idea that we can change our focus to other thoughts and stories about ourselves. This makes NT resonate with me.

  188. Thank you for providing this resource. I am attracted to narrative therapy because it seems to resist trauma that can happen in other forms of therapy. It empowers ourselves and our clients.

  189. The Narrative metaphor is so important in the lives of people we work with. I work with children who have experienced trauma and their narratives can be so terrible but we have the power to write a new story for them and that can be powerful

  190. Since beginning this online course I have been constantly thinking of the narrative metaphor, how excited I am to learn more and how thin stories affect my own life. Just this one section has been incredibly enriching. I see the narrative metaphor as enabling one to explore their multifaceted human experience. Not just the positive and/or negative thin stories but rich, all-encompassing experiences, endured and enjoyed by all humans.

    Thus, it enabled me to explore my own self and experience and notice thin stories which frequently arise telling me a certain ‘truth’ I have come to believe. As a practitioner I constantly try and practice from a strengths-based approach I believe narrative therapy is an amazing framework for doing so. Not just for acknowledging someones strengths but supporting people to explore themselves in a new way.

  191. I’m a new social worker, having just earned my MSW last May, and I work in a mental health hospital within the California prison system providing group and individual therapy to incarcerated men. I was drawn to Narrative Therapy after taking a class in Solution Focused Brief Therapy where the concept of externalizing was introduced.

    My understanding from this first chapter is that the Narrative Metaphor is a way for people to reflect on the paths they have taken to understand who they are and examine whether conclusions reached via these paths are warranted. It seems to me that narrative therapy seeks to encourage people to think outside of well-worn paths that lead to thin conclusions that don’t serve them, and instead become curious about the neglected paths that paint a more detailed and complex picture, which honors both the impact of suffering on our experiences of life as well as the resilience we all carry inside us.

    Thinking about stories in this way is helpful in my own development as a social worker, as it helps me to notice when I am reaching thin conclusions that disrupt my ability to progress (such as self-doubt influenced by my new-ness to the profession). This also helps me in my work with clients who are routinely seen as their problems in a system that is meant to reinforce that thin conclusion over and over again.

    I am incredibly grateful that this course is available online and at no cost! Thank you so much for this opportunity. I am excited for what’s to come!

  192. How wonderful it is to read everyone’s perspectives on the narrative metaphor – so rich and diverse. For me, the narrative metaphor means an opportunity to understand something that can be difficult to interpret or make sense of.

    Thinking about stories in this way offers a lens through which to uncover the meaning behind human experience and validate the varied conscious connections that intersect during lives. I think that it is a way in which empowerment can be fostered and strengths can be remembered – allowing the individual scope for choice and control in their life. In this process, unique to each of us, the self is freed of a particular story or narrative which presents the opportunity for liberation, growth and transformation.

  193. I have always been a story teller myself and in my work I learn about people through the telling of their story. I realised through this unit on the Narrative Metaphor how much I already use story telling in the work that I do. I really enjoyed learning about the thin story and the importance of looking for more than just the dominant story, that there is a rich tapestry of stories that describe our lives. I look forward to hearing many more stories from people I work with and assisting them to find the rich story that is their life.

  194. Thank you for this Dulwich Centre. My name is Melanie I’m a Social Worker writing from the Gold Coast, Queensland, Aus. My previous role was working within an Emergency Department Hospital in NSW. This content helped me to reflect on what I found challenging when working within a health setting. I would often find patients would be defined by their illness or Mental Illness and this alone, would be their common story while being treated. Although it is true that these diagnosis need to be brought to the forefront in order for them to receive appropriate medical care, many other aspects of the person would be overlooked. Acknowledging and validating these other ‘stories’ would often effect a patients mood, recovery time and discharge plan in a positive way. It’s difficult to sometimes see a ‘whole’ person in an environment such as a hospital however if we try to, the health outcomes can often be greater.

  195. I am from Metford NSW Australia. The narrative metaphor is a method of identifying and externalise a story and emotions connected to it. I think of a pipeline that runs from a big dam into different pipes. When a client start their story, it is like a dripping tap. It is a therapist job to encourage a client to open that tap to allow a thicker stream of “story” to pour out.

    What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?
    As a therapist it allows me to understand where the client is coming from better. To know what life event have influenced the client and the original single strand (dripping tap) story.

  196. My name is Tracy, and I reside in South Florida, USA. Narrative Metaphor has been an ongoing fascination of mine, that I didn’t recognize as I grew in my profession. I kept hearing others comment that I always focused on someone’s story and was encouraged to pursue narrative Therapy. I was particularly drawn to the concept of identifying thin conclusions or rather the danger of thin conclusions, and the ability to develop thick and rich stories that better reflect the overarching journey of life. I am currently a therapist at an addictions facility, and have seen firsthand the danger of focusing and believing the negative thin conclusion placed upon many ‘addicts’, ‘junkies’, ‘down and out’ clients who have lost the ability to expand their story or cannot remember other parts of their story that can inspire, teach and develop growth.
    I was thrilled to find this course, and am looking forward to gaining a better understanding of narrative therapy as well as how to honor people by assisting them in recognizing the fullness and richness of their story in a larger context.

  197. I would describe narrative therapy as a way of looking at individuals through their stories. We all carry stories and how we relate to those stories can shape who we are. Sometimes individuals resinate with single stories or thin stories rather than opening to the multi-storied narrative on one’s life. Narrative therapy provides a framework in which we can explore and become curious about the stories individual resinate with and maybe investigate how to include the whole story or multi-storied factors of the individual. I love the TED talk by Chimamanda Adichie . It’s it funny how we so often make assumptions about cultures when there are so many facades that remain unexplored. Without this awareness we risk missing out on the richness of the multi-stories of people’s lives.

    Thinking about stories in this way will help me develop a better understanding of the whole person. I hope to develop awareness of how I listen to stories and learn to discern how the thin stories impact our lives. I hope to develop a better understanding on how to be curious enough to help individuals seek out the stories that have been suppressed. I look forward to what else I will learn through this course.

  198. Hello everyone, I’m Myles and I live and work as a clinician in rural QLD, AUS.

    I found this lesson, the narrative metaphor, probably the most eye opening information around therapy (and personal experiences) that I have come across in my practice thus far. Although a simple concept, it is amazing how often we oversight it, particularly the “one story” process, whether we are stereotyping or delivering brief intervention therapy for services. It is very easy for us to say as people and clinicians “Ah… there is the problem, this is what has caused it, let me structure my thinking around that one precise story”.

    The narrative metaphor itself is a beautiful way to describe someones life, much as some of the best books in the world have multiple characters, story-lines which all tie together in a wonderful tapestry to provide character development and create the holistic story that we can appreciate and understand. To read one such book from a single point of view, or to read a chapter out of context, so to speak, would cause the reader to make a judgement, positive or negative, which may not represent the book appropriately. In such a way, it is with people, we can judge on simple stories or explore them more with the person to understand their character and difficulties with them.

    In this way, by thinking about stories which create people, I hope to become a better clinician by better understanding the client journey and providing better intervention around it. I think the concept of shifting the perception of “victim of trauma” to a “story of survival” to be a useful one and may help with attribution change during therapy.

    I am looking forward to learning more about the core concepts of Narrative therapy and applying them in my practice.

    • Myles,

      Reading your paragraph when you stated, “describe someones life, much as some of the best books in the world have multiple characters, story-lines which all tie together in a wonderful tapestry to provide character development and create the holistic story that we can appreciate and understand.” That was wonderful, and I realized that I have always enjoyed reading and subsequently I enjoy the stories of people’s lives in much the same way, and recognize how that impacts how I work with clients.

  199. Therapy is my second career; my first is as a technical writer so the ideas of language and meaning being so interconnected resonates strongly with me. I am drawn to the concept that we identify so strongly with our dominant story that we lose sight of the other stories of our lives and even more importantly identifying the possibilities of other deeply buried stories and desires. This approach reminds me constantly that people are rich, complex human beings and that to simplify ourselves based on what we currently know or think we see is limiting and a disservice to them and to myself. I love that this approach requires us to always challenge our biases and the way they limit us.

    I am just starting out and so am in the process of finding my voice as a therapist. Thank you for this introduction, and I am looking forward to understanding how to hold these creative conversations with people.

  200. Hi, I am writing from Adelaide, Australia.
    I would describe the narrative metaphor as how we perceive ourselves through our experiences and influences which has the potential to
    be continually redefined.

    I think what thinking about stories in this way makes possible for me is the exciting realisation that through this approach I can assist others and myself to re-evaluate the external influences that effect their life and my own which can be life-changing.

  201. I live in Alice Springs in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    It seems to me that the best examples of narrative metaphor are those given given by Elan in the therapy interview where he describes his extreme guilt first as a dark spirit and later as a funny cartoon character as he feels the weight of the dark spirit lifting. From this I would describe the narrative metaphor as: a way in which an individual can express their personal relationship and understanding of an experience they are having in a way that describes or conveys to another their own unique perspective of that experience.

    Thinking about stories in this way would assist me in being able to empathize more fully with the people I am working with as a counselor, because I will be able to more readily accept, acknowledge and come to an understanding of each persons sense of what has happened (or is happening) for them.

  202. Hi , My name is Maya and I am a post graduate social work student from India. My specialisation is in the area of mental health. Most of my work is centred around children in institutions and experiences of trauma. Mental health as a field , especially child and adolescent mental health is , still dominated by deficit oriented approaches. Mental health services for children focus to a large degree on behavioural regulation. i was drawn to the idea of the therapeutic space as a vehicle for social change and i feel narrative approaches have done a good job in blending the perspectives.
    What i would like to take back from the narrative metaphor is
    – a strengths based approach to solving problems
    – and looking at a person as a part of the wider context and addressing wider questions of power and dominant discourses.
    – viewing the client as an expert in their own lives.
    This is especially important while addressing experiences of trauma and violence.

  203. I’m exploring more about narrative therapy from the United States, and more specifically from Wisconsin where I work in a rural community which is highly polarized in terms of socio-economic situations for residents. There is a small extremely wealthy population of farm and company owners as well as retired individuals who chose to retire to very high-valued lake properties and then a very large population of working families. I work as a mental health/ substance abuse therapist in a public mental health system. Professionally, I am highly involved with individuals who have substance abuse or criminal justice involvement. Personally, I am very interested in mind-body work and helping people to find alternative expressions of their stories through the way they integrate their mind and their body.

    In response to the reflection questions, I think that one of the things that is the most important for me about the narrative metaphor is that it encourages and gives permission for people to look past the narratives that cause them to feel “stuck”. So many of the individuals I have the opportunity to serve report feeling “stuck” and report that the problems that they describe are multi-generational (and in fact staff at my work who have been around much longer than myself frequently attest to this), and being able to identify those narratives as just one strand of a larger story can be utterly transformative. I am interested in integrating these techniques with mind-body practices as I believe that these frequently help people to break out of the “thin narratives” that are discussed here.

  204. Hi, I’m Leanne from Brisbane, Australia and I am doing practice-led PhD research into therapeutic writing. I am interested in using narrative therapy as a framework for my research/writing.
    I see the narrative metaphor as representing people’s lives as a story. As such, the story can be changed. Thinking about stories in this way allows people to re-story their lives, to move away from the dominant ‘thin’ story they have told themselves, or have been told, and have indoctrinated as their view of identity.

    • Hi Leanne, your research sounds really interesting to me. Is there a way I can follow you or read your findings when you’re finished?

  205. So I’m exploring the benefits of narrative therapy for a post grad course I’m studying at Cambridge University in the UK in Child And Adolescent Psychotherapeutic Counselling. I work with adolescents who have cancer and I’m fascinated by ways in which we can support individuals to prevent their cancer identity becoming their dominant story. Also the impact that is made in relation to positive survivorship when that is the case.Would love to hear from anyone else working in the field of TYA/AYA cancer

  206. I am exploring more about narrative therapy from the Riverland, South Australia.

    The resources included in this first chapter have strengthened and added much depth to my understanding of narrative therapy.

    I see the narrative metaphor as the therapist walking alongside others to lead them to see themselves in a range of new ways, to see strengths and stories they have never noticed. This will help people to have positive self image, it will empower and build confidence, it strengthen people to continue to resist oppression and live happier, fuller lives despite the problems/barriers they might face or continue to face.

  207. Hello, my name is Nicola, and I’m from Brisbane, Australia, studying counselling.

    How would you describe the narrative metaphor?
    I found the dot animation very helpful, that there are many events that occur in our lives, and focusing on one theme and using events that only support that theme can lead to a very limited way of thinking about yourself or others. It reminds me of Sean Covey’s book the 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens, and he talked about how paradigms are the way we see ourselves and the world, and if you look for events to support a paradigm or mindset, you’ll find them. I love that narrative therapy brings possibility and adds richness to the stories we tell about ourselves and others.

    What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?
    Thinking about stories in this way means that I can help clients to break out of limited stories or themes that define them in negative or unhelpful ways, and look at other ideas and stories in their lives, ways they can identify things about themselves that are more helpful or beneficial.

  208. Hi. I’m a Psychologist in private practice. I have a part-time contract to provide services to an Aboriginal service. I also see a lot of older adults. I believe that Narrative Therapy offers a lot to these groups. My first impression of the readings was pleasure at how congruent the values and methods of Narrative practice are to my own. I like that the environmental context is important and that the approach allows for appreciation of people’s survival skills and knowledge.
    I would describe the Narrative Metaphor as a structure for envisaging a person’s view of the world which provides me with a starting point for understanding their story and ways of assisting them to develop, strengthen and enrich alternative stories. it is a respectful approach which acknowledges context and the possibility of change.
    I think it will provide a framework for my curiosity towards alternative ways of supporting and helping people identify alternative, less problematic ways of being in the world.

  209. The approach highlighted for me in a more structured way the importance of the story. I always have appreciated stories in my personal and professional life. The concept of narratives unwraps opportunities for the therapist and for individuals and communities to experience new dimensions and meanings for life events and stories.
    I found narrative therapy to an empowering strategy for people and gives them the chance to re-tell their stories and to learn ways to transfer the knowledge and skills they have to future life situations. People within the context of the concept of narrative therapy are the experts of their lives and have the right to re-claim their stories and to share with others. I particularly appreciate the notion of healing associated with the concept of justice.

  210. WOW! I am a social work student from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, and I was directed to this website and course by one of my instructors.

    After finishing this first section, I am extremely impressed with the model for helping myself and others unpack the stories that we are telling or that we are being told about ourselves or about others.

    I would describe the narrative metaphor as an umbrella. When the umbrella is closed the story is being told, but is not effective for shielding the individual from the harm of such a unilateral and partial description. The object is still an umbrella, but it is not operating as it should be. When we open our selves and our stories up we see that from the centre there extend different lines, each one unique and heading off in its own direction. This opening covers the individual in sunny or rainy weather and provides them with a sense of security and confidence. It also creates a safe space for others to come under for shelter as well, inviting them to also explore not only the wonder of our open umbrella, but perhaps they will discover that theirs will open as well.

    Thinking about stories in this way makes it possible for you to explore, wonder and probe with curiosity the underlying assumptions I am making and it opens me up to be able to consider alternative possibilities and storylines. This makes the umbrella fuller and more effective!

    • This metaphor of the umbrella is brilliant. It seems the perfect way to visualize the strengths and pitfalls of one story or many. Thank you for connecting us with this everyday image amidst a sea of academia.

  211. Hi all, firstly I am happy and excited to tell that I’m starting to take further study in narrative therapy. The reason for that is because of this statement “The person is not the problem, the problem is the problem”. from Michael White. Actually, it is really difficult to work on but we shall try it when negative thinking comes out automatically, our cognitive distortions.

    How would you describe the narrative metaphor?
    For this reflective question, the immediate thought comes out in my mind is the conversation between Michael White and Barbara Brooks on ABC Radio National and online. Indeed, it’s a very fruitful conversation. In the conversation, Michael said “And in my own work I find that I meet many, many people who are feeling quite desolate and quite empty and it’s pretty clear to me that most of these folks have a very ‘thin’ sense of that stream of consciousness, or a ‘thin’ experience of it.” For me, it’s so important to have this idea for starting to learn about narrative therapy. Narrative metaphor is all about thin description, think conclusion, and how to make it towards a rich and thick description through those alternative stories, according to Alice Morgan’s influential and highly popular text, What is narrative therapy? An easy-to-read introduction.

  212. The narrative metaphor is the paradoxical story we tell and retell to make sense of, interpret, and even justify our experiences. I consider this concept a paradox because I understand the narrative metaphor to be, in one regard, cathartic and liberating in that it involves defining and labelling our experiences. In the other regard, however, I understand the narrative metaphor to be entrapping as it is prescribing just one, often linear understanding and interpretation of our experiences. Many of the authors in the resources included in this chapter often referred to the latter as the “thin story” because it fails to incapsulate the substance, complexity and fluidity of our experiences.

    Thinking about this process makes it possible to understand the ways in which we are conditioned to find one story, adopt it, and use it as a framework in experiencing our entire lives. In a world of fear and anxiety, I consider this part of a coping mechanism. Change forms when we challenge the story we are telling ourselves and explore where it comes from and if there are any other stories in our space. Part of that challenge requires strength in being vulnerable enough to let go of our old stories and embrace the possibility of new ones.

  213. Just the idea of how people tell a single story, rather than recognising that everybody and everything has multiple stories, that our lives are “multistoried” with a dominant and alternative stories, has helped my own introspective organisation of story. I enjoyed reading about this new topic (for me), and the refreshing language including thin conclusion vs rich description. It served as a timely reminder to practice curiosity and asking questions, also that people are the experts in their own lives. Taryn, Broome.

  214. The narrative metaphor is the way in which we assign meaning to experiences in our lives in order to understand our lives and build our identity. Like Joan Didion wrote, “We tell ourselves stories in order to live.” By allowing ourselves to look beyond a single narrative or dominant storyline, we are able to see alternative storylines and perhaps different opportunities or identities we didn’t even realize were there or had simply forgotten about. For instance, I may believe I am socially awkward and that I’ve always been that way and always will be. But if I allow myself to remember times when I wasn’t socially awkward or if I ask other people what their perception of me is and they see me in another light, I might start to believe a new version of myself and a different future for myself as a social being. Erica, Los Angeles, CA

  215. I’ve always struggled with the story I feel has been imposed on me in therapy, they always bring out the tragedy more than I feel comfortable with so that the days following a session are shaky as I hold together through the gauntlet of bad memories. My thin description has been one of “well at least it wasn’t as bad as…” while I internalize a bully. I think David’s story of the therapist colleague re-telling his patient’s story was very powerful. The alternative interpretations aspect has been commented on here a lot but what got to me was that he probably felt really heard. That’s what many people seem to really want

  216. The narrative metaphor is one way of describing the way we perceive our own lives – as a story. There is often a dominant story, which for people who have experienced trauma, could be described as a “thin story.” Stories are always influenced by the social context in which they originated and it is important not to separate healing from justice. The aim of narrative therapy is to assist people to author alternative stories and reconstruct their identity in a way that is no longer defined by the trauma.

    In thinking about stories in this way, I am encouraged to “dig beneath the surface” in my conversations with the communities we work with, and to look for the stories of survival and hope.

  217. Pauline from Surrey, Canada

    The Narrative Metaphor is introduced into the Narrative Therapy to encourage the therapists to assist the clients to explore multiple life stories, especially those neglected ones, which might transport them to an unplanned new territory of dreams, expectation and actions.

    Thinking stories in this way, I might have more passion to discover the fascinating diversity of lives around, not judging people in a rush and not regretting that I might have missed something on the road.

  218. One of the many things I admire about the Dulwich Center is that it practices what it preaches. Rather than limiting its reach to privileged professionals by only offering expensive training opportunities, it offers affordable points of entry and free resources for those with limited means. To me this is an example of taking an awareness of oppression, community-building and diversity seriously.

    As a person of African descent in in the USA trained as a clinical psychologist, I have often found myself alienated from the core ideas of the field–its focus on pathology and DSM-thinking, and lack of a sophisticated understanding of how how social forces impact individual well-being and communities. Narrative praxis was love at first sight for me, because it focuses on strengths and and acknowledges forces beyond inner workings of the mind. As I return to small-group and community work after many years in the academy, becoming a student of it is my first priority.

  219. Really enjoying the journey as narrative therapy brings together all my pasts (post-colonial literature and social work) in a way that I never thought would merge. Such a simple yet profound concept that also ties all the elements of client experiences into a strengths-based, client-centric way. I guess this course has already shown me how the theories were taught can be seen in the reality we see in our clients and also within ourselves.


  220. I’m so grateful to have stumbled upon this therapeutic modality, and for this introductory course which offers so much valuable information and insight – both as a writer and artist, as much as a seeker in life.

    The process of setting off from one story line but allowing for different points of view and reference; then going off in unplanned directions and along newly embraced story lines, is a beautiful and supportive one. It fosters an environment where aspects of our identity that have been left aside, can become more fully addressed and integrated into a more holistic/wholistic understanding of our-selves and our life’s journey.

  221. Kia ora from Herena in Aotearoa-NZ.

    How would you describe the narrative metaphor?
    Narrative metaphor is a way of finding meaning through storytelling and how we form ourselves and our lives in the telling; this may be implicated in what we tell, how we shape the stories, what we forget or omit to tell. Narrative metaphor is powerful because in telling the stories of our forming, we are formed and are further informed. The listener is also formed.

    What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?
    In making this comment, I am positioning myself as a therapist who is an indigenous person from this country (Māori), and with a background in theatre making. After coming out of the other end of formal psychology training, and stumbling onto this course, the parts of me that were lying dormant whilst I traversed academia have been reawakened and revitalised. Narrative therapy makes total sense to me. It speaks to an old tradition of sitting together at the fire and telling stories of how we came to be – and in the act of telling – rebind ourselves into the story. It enables the teller of their own story to recraft their stories – to recognise the many stories of their lives, and to open up other possibilities of being and doing, thus engendering the potential for liberation. I think I need to consider more how I as a potential listener to others’ stories may influence the telling, that I have a part to play – and the way I engage in or respond to the story could inadvertently influence a certain censorship, e.g. over emphasis on certain plot points, omission or brushing over of details, etc. But I suppose on any given day, the same story retold over and over again, will be changed in some way. This section reminds me to be very mindful of my engagement- to be ethical, and to receive stories as a gift.

    • Thanks for your post. This is so very well said:

      It enables the teller of their own story to recraft their stories – to recognise the many stories of their lives, and to open up other possibilities of being and doing, thus engendering the potential for liberation. I think I need to consider more how I as a potential listener to others’ stories may influence the telling, that I have a part to play.

      It sums up how narrative practice fits into my abiding interest in liberation psychology.

  222. Sonja from Quorn South Australia
    The sense that we are more than just one storyline, we are more than the sum of one event, one story, one person, one worldview. Our storylines are complex, made up of multiple volumes, not bound in one hard cover, but interleaved and entwined. We are the sum of our storylines, thickened stories. And if we can support the people we work with, engage with, to tell their thickened stories, then they are in a position to discover solutions to life challenges.

    Thank you so much for this online course…..many years ago I participated in a Tree of Life workshop, and it has never left me….remained something strong in my memory, and became part of my storyline…

  223. Pong from HKSAR China
    Thanks for the sharing of the idea of Narrative practice. Narrative gives a meaningful story(or stories) to a person that they can explore their life experience or events through the interview. A connection between the person’s life experience can be build to thicken their identity.
    In a contrast to other traditional therapy, narrative practice treasure a lot to the participation of the person that he/she is the best person to handle the problem facing. It makes narrative therapy a person centered therapy

  224. Deo le Roux from Cape Town South Africa
    What a pleasure clicking around on this website. A big ‘Thank You’ to Michael White and folks at Dulwich Centre for this free gift!

    How would you describe the narrative metaphor?
    As applied in Narrative Practice, well, it’s the greatest thing since sliced bread, much more nourishing in this form, refreshing and unique in its ability to reconcile so many of the elusive, troublesome and redeeming complexities of identity/ consciousness.

    What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?
    Working through this material, at times, it seems to me that all things have become possible. I won’t be a bit surprised if, in time, this turns out to be the case.

  225. Catherine from Strathalbyn SA
    Thankyou for this online course. I am studying to be a peerworker in mental health and feel that some of the themes of Narrative Practice can help me have healing conversations with my peers.
    The Narrative Metaphor is a way of understanding someones current prodicament and from this beginning we can seek out other storylines that can be thickened so a broader story is experienced. Seeking to take people from a one dimentional story to a many faceted one that tells of their skills, preferences, knowledge, desires and so on.

  226. Helen from Sydney NSW.

    Thank you for providing this online course and the materials that speak so well of Narratives aims and objectives.
    I really enjoyed the video from Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, it was a great opener to understanding the influence stories have on our lives and how we can be seen thinly by others through stereotypes, arrogance & naivety. I also loved how Alice Morgan points out that we have choice! “We can choose where to go and what to leave behind”.

    Clients often feel stuck, some because they don’t know which path to take, and others because the life that they want for themselves is in conflict with the life and choices that others have chosen for them.

    I also like the thought that we can reshape our lives and create new preferred stories of ourselves. That we can reflect, learn, and grow from our experiences and that our lives don’t have to be defined by ‘the problem’ that creates havoc in our lives and relationships.

  227. Kia ora, thank you for the chance to start learning about narrative therapy online and for free.

    I’m going to try and respond after each chapter to make sure some of it sinks in!

    Some of the ideas I’ve taken from this chapter are that our lives are stories and we’re all story tellers. We’re all novelists and in order to read ourselves and write stories for ourselves – and each other – that are healthy, nourishing, sustainable, surprising and rewarding, we need to care for all the plots, characters and themes of our past, present and future. Being deeply curious can restore the “balance of stories” and return dignity (“paradise”) to the story teller.

    Single stories can serve the powerful and dispossess those the story is supposed to be about. But by telling our own stories, and practising ‘double’ and multiple listening, we can reduce the influence of problems/single stories in our lives.

    We earn the title/role of ‘story teller’ by being human, not by being ‘well’ or ‘good’ or ‘white’ or ‘black’ or ‘published’. Being story tellers means that we are active, creative producers – not just recipients or readers of culture. We all have a role to play in our communities. Like the Charter of Story Telling Rights says in Article 7, we all have the right to share our stories and in doing so co-create healthier, more just communities.

  228. Hi!
    I am Karina. Am really learning a good deal from the articles and audios, and would like to share my own reflections.

    My understanding of the the narrative metaphor is that it is a symbolic way of understanding and making meaning of our lives, where we create a dominant story, that then has consequences on how we live our lives. In narrative therapy, we take the thin storylines that are making our lives problematic, and flesh out alternative stories and narratives that reflect our strengths, hopes, and dreams.

    I find this this to be rich in therapeutic value and possibility. Every life story, as expressed, has exceptions. Our life is not so “thin”, following a narrow path or plot. Instead, there are a plethora of different events and relationships that, if examined and discussed, can create a very different story or stories. And if one’s life story is full of sadness or loss or mistakes, by narrating alternative stories of happiness, gains or success, then one can appreciate a very different life, and distinguish oneself from the reason for going to therapy in the first place.

    As a therapist of adolescents from privileged families who engage in self-harm, or have made suicidal attempts, I hear narratives of self-loathing, failure, hopelessness, and helplessness; and how the world would just be a better place without them. I see how sitting with them to remember alternative stories can pull them from sticking to these problematic life plots and energize them by rediscovering less remembered strengths, hopes, and successes.

    • Firstly I would like to thank Philippa for your warm welcome and guidance during this inspiring journey! Thank you.

      Many valuable insights during this first session of Narrative Metaphor. Having an understanding that we all have many stories in our lives that form our identity and bring meaning to our lives – stories that change and take different pathways, stories which are very unique and personal and that we are all experts in retelling our stories.

      Chimamanda Adichie’s presentation was capturing and a valuable reminder that untold and unrecognised stories ” rob people of dignity”. No matter how “problematic” one’s life might present at the time, this persons stories matter. Not just a single, thin story. Being genuinely curious and asking questions in a respectful manner as Alice Morgan describes are key elements to discover those untold and unrecognised stories. I dare say that sometimes we tend to focus on one’s problems forgetting the hidden skills and competencies that give a different and new meaning – an alternative story.

      David Denborough’s Charter of Rights I find fundamental in the different field’s of context we work in supporting individuals through their experiences and potential traumas in order to make sense of their stories to reclaim new possibilities in life.

  229. Eve from Toowoomba, Queensland
    Reading about the narrative metaphor has been very interesting. I am just starting to study this therapy and plan to use use the concepts with Indigenous and non Indigenous clients. I am interested to see how Indigenous clients will respond. I have already found a number of clients have resonated with the idea of understanding their own stories and of adding more layers and meanings to reveal more complex story lines.

  230. Lesley from Melbourne, Victoria. Thank you Dulwhich for an interesting and thought provoking 1st session. I completed Narrative therapy training at Bouverie centre in Melbourne back in 2007. I currently attend a Narrative reading group however thought it time to refresh and update my Narrative ideas and learnings, therefore I am completing the online narrative training offered by Dulwich and if the first session is anything to go by I’m glad I have. I work as a counsellor at a Community Health centre in Melbourne, Victoria and work from Narrative Practice ideas. Loved The Dot Exercise by Jill Freedman & Gene Combs. This clearly explained the multi-storied concept of narrative. Thrilled about the NT Charter of Story- telling Rights, how respectful and acknowledging of the people who consult us. Looking forward to learning more”

  231. Deborah from Hong Kong

    I am excited to share the dot exercise with the families and children of adoption, allowing different stories of a child’s life to be recognized and honored. So many adoptive children feel they are defined by “adoption” instead of adoption just being one of many parts of their lives.

    Often, we find children of adoption suffer from anxiety, which might come from developmental neglect. Our children struggle with issues that are often too quickly adressed in such a way that suggest the adoption is the problem. Of course, the dominate storyline for an adopted child might be the adoption, but it is not the only storyline. And, for an adoptive parent, the adoption is one of the most beautiful and meaningful moments of the parent’s life. Bringing the adoption and the other story lines together allow a child to be valued for just “being”.

  232. Hi,

    I’m Julia, working as a theatre-activist and community/peace worker in Nepal.

    Thinking about the narrative metaphor and listening to Chimananda Adichie has resonated a lot with my personal values, beliefs and professional approaches. It reminds me of how powerful the stories we tell ourselves, to others and which we are being told, are in shaping our own lives, relationships, choices, desires, fears etc.; and how much they are influenced and even inter-connected in different ways with ‘dominant cultural, social and political narratives’, even when those are rather thin or single-storied.

    I work a lot to bring stories and people on stage, that are not part of these dominant narratives – stories of women for example, of marginalized ethnic groups, and thus of people whose stories and histories have often been neglected, re-written and re-interpreted by others. In that sense, the introduced literature and featured talks encourage me to keep doing this work in an attempt of reproducing cultural narratives, that can embrace difference, that can be inclusive and diverse, complex and contradictory, and that can be ‘owned’.

    In that sense I connect the idea of a ‘narrative metaphor’ very much with the idea of re-producing more holistic, inclusive and diverse narratives within individuals, communities and societies.

    In addition, thinking about theatre-workshops, that engage with inter- or intra-personal conflicts and often generate transformitavie processes, I also feel that narrative practices could support survivors who tell their stories of trauma and abuse in re-connecting with other parts of their stories and identities, so that trauma becomes a less dominant reference point.

    Similarly, introducing the idea of multiple story-lines or rich descriptions could be helpful to conflicting parties, who have created thin descriptions or single stories about themselves and ‘the other’ – I’m curious to investigate how it could support people in re-connecting with their own multiple stories, complexities, contradictions etc. while being able to re-humanize ‘the other’ in the same way – acknowledging our own weaknesses, as well as our strengths and allowing the same space and existence for ‘the other’ so that ‘the other’ is no more.

    Thank you for the food for thought and emotions 🙂

  233. Hi, I’m Nicole writing from Toronto, Ontario,

    I have heard Narrative Therapy talked about a lot over the years as an effective treatment modality for trauma, but in completing this module I can see it is so much more and there are endless possibilities to how it can be impactful, empowering and insightful.

    I also had been told over the years it is best practiced in long term counselling or therapy. Based on what I have learned so far from this course, it seems it could be used in many contexts in counselling. I work in a short-term brief setting sometimes single session with children and youth who have a family member with a mental health challenge. Would there be different considerations in utilizing narrative practice in a single session with a client or family?

    Looking forward to continuing this learning journey through the other modules.

    • Hi Nicole, in response to your query about short-term counselling work. I draw on Narrative Therapy within a Single Session framework and from my experience find that Narrative works very well in this setting, often delivering 2-4 sessions on average.

  234. Hi, I’m Susie, from London UK. I work with people who have an experience of psychosis in the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK.

    Dot exercise – I definitely recognise the thin narrative, people with psychosis who can’t really account for their experiences, reject the medical explanation but don’t seem to have another explanation to offer, struggling to make sense of what’s happened to them. I’m already thinking of power and oppression, the dominance of the medical narrative, most of my clients have been detained against their will under the medical narrative. How hard must it be to develop a different narrative in the face of such dominance? I’m also remembering a family where the mother repeats and repeats that her sons don’t listen to her, she just wants them to listen to her. It’s hard to develop the description, narrative, about the situation.

    The danger of the single story – I’m struck by her early comment, of our vulnerability and impressionableness in the face of stories. How vulnerable my clients and colleagues are in the face of the dominant or medical narrative of psychosis. I’m encouraged by social media, in these early days of Brexit (the referendum where Britain chose to leave the European Union) and increase of racist violence in the UK, how Facebook and Twitter share many stories of refugees and immigrants to counteract the dominant media and right wing opinions. I’m encouraged myself to continue, and increase, the contribution I make to discussing clients in our team meetings, to continually bring other stories about our clients and their lives, other than they have an illness and need to take medication, or they are badly behaved.

  235. Hi Emmalene from the Tweed Valley (previously from Adelaide),
    For me the Narative Metaphor is best described as the catharsis gained from exploring one’s own experience from a slightly alternative lens, the notion that the problem is external to self and that being able to gain a separation from self and others, from self and experience and self and society are very important for change.
    I regularly draw on the idea that the problem is the problem and that it invites us and others to engage in patterns of relating that can be counter-intuitive and problematic for us. I enjoyed the idea that Michael made in the ABC interveiw that the notion of hearing our story being narrated by an alternative person can be cathartic in and of itself. I work with families often whereby the narrative is held like a heavy weight around their necks and to be understood and valued in their context and experience is a very new idea to them.

    I enjoyed this idea about stereotypes inviting us to see the world in a one dimensional fashion without consideration for the broader ideas and experiences that have come before. I think about this in relation to a new article I read recently about a woman in France being condemmed for wearing the burkini and how ridiculous this seemed in a world that has become wrapped up in the idea that radical, Islamic extremism has become the norm instead of the exception and that in some way this lady on a beach, enjoying herself could have anything to do with acts of terrorism across the globe. I also began to consider how the way in which we speak about events has significant power. I am reading Judith Herman’s ‘Trauma and Recovery’ which is speaking about the manner in which we attribute language to experience can have power over the experience.

    But, I digress, perhaps as Barbara Brooks identifies in her points about the importance of a flow of ideas before the creative, structured side takes over!

  236. Hi, I’m Tiffany from Strathmore, Alberta and am currently working through my masters in counselling. I’ve found Narrative therapy to be intriguing and hopeful in working to demonstrate multiple story lines and events in life. As well, using the multiple stories to redefine events I think can be very impactful for individuals that have experienced trauma. Going through the first lesson I am further intrigued on how to engage resistant clients in telling their story and moving away from the single defined story they have developed for themselves.

  237. Hi, I’m writing from Adelaide, Australia.

    For me the narrative metaphor could be described as exploring unfinished stories.

    I love the quote from Chimananda Adichie in her TED talk mentioning “the single stories create sterotypes, the problem of stereotypes is that they are not untrue but that they are incomplete, they make one story become the only story.”

    The effect of being “incomplete” is challenged by the narrative metaphor as is not necessarily changes a story, but aims to uncover the depth within it and how it can powerfully change an individuals perception.

    There are so many new possibilites in thinking by viewing stories in an expansive manner. A few that come to mind could be:
    – Taking comfort in shared experiences with others by seeing similiatries in a story
    – Seeing the uniqueness of a situation and the strengths that ones has developed because of that.
    – Or even recovering a sense of value from uncovering forgotten truths and exposing dominant falsities.

    A good reminder for myself as a therapist to use in my own life stories!

    Thanks for the great resource, looking forward to the further chapters.

  238. I would describe the narrative metaphor as developing my ability to actively listen , acknowledge and share that there are powerful alternative stories that dominate peoples lives which does not always fit with the dominant discourse.

    Thinking about stories using the narrative metaphor allows me to retell the story not only to the dominant discourse but also to the person who owns the story and acknowledge them of resilience in the face of adversity.

  239. Thank you for this opportunity to engage with narrative ideas in a supported and guided way.

    I think the narrative metaphor to me means that there are many different stories of our lives, and the context we find ourselves in means that certain stories are privileged above others. I’m hoping that by thinking about our lives in this way and stories in this way, I will be able to find ways to articulate and bring forth alternative stories, especially in certain conversations at work, where there are some powerful dominant discourses. I am interested in learning how to support the people I work with (“clients”) to articulate these alternative stories as well, and how to be a useful advocate for this way of working in my workplace. By the way, I live in Sydney, Australia!

  240. Hi, I’m Esta from Hobart, Australia and am finishing post grad studies in social work. I love the idea of stories capacity for healing. I especially love the description of thin stories and thin conclusions and there being multiple stories. I also love the idea of fattening these non dominant stories to create new identity and meaning. Looking forward to learning more skills and awareness around this. 🙂

  241. Hi. I’m a writer, editor, and creative writing teacher living in New Zealand. I’m drawn to narrative practice because I love story, and have, since I can remember, been aware of conceptualising the world, and my place in it, through story.

    To me, the narrative metaphor means making sense of the world, defining things and trying to understand them, ordering experiences, and making plans, using story. Stories are our organising principles.

    When I first came across narrative practice (only recently!) I felt almost instant excitement. Here, it seemed, was a whole treasure chest of new (to me) ways to look at story and its usefulness to individuals and society. I’m not sure where exactly I’m taking this exploration, or where it’s taking me, but, already, what little I’ve learned about it has given me some ideas that I’m sure I can bring into my work – in both writing and teaching.
    I also want to say – I love the way that narrative practice *gives permission* for people to tell multiple stories about themselves. That you don’t need to seek one true story for yourself, in any given situation. That honesty doesn’t depend on this. it’s perfectly OKAY to have multiple, perhaps contradictory stories alive in your mind – and they can still all be true … they’re just each a different set of dots, joined in different ways.

  242. I am a LCSWA working in a State Hospital in Morganton North Carolina USA. I help facilitate a Narrative Therapy group here with our patients. It is wonderful to watch our patients learn to tell their own stories. It can be slow process due to patients gaining stability in their own journey. I am excited to learn more about how to use this therapy here and in the future with other patients and clients. The ability to express one’s own story and be able to use one’s own words couched in the place, time and different circumstances impacting that person’s life journey is a wonderful thing and an ability I hope to encourage in my patients/clients.

  243. Hello, I am a counselling student (Applied Social Science) nearing the end of my degree. I am currently on three weeks trimester break. From the beginning of my studies Narrative Therapy has really resonated with me and I’m looking forward to completing this course. I live on the NSW Central Coast and I am an online student at JNI (Torrens University).

  244. Hi, there.I´m Veronica from Argentina. As a teacher I can say that the narrative metaphor is an excellent tool to build a way out of the generalization. Which is a very common bad practise among teachers. I love listening to my students and watching their transformation during a conversation in which we pay attention to each other. We spend a long time with the kids at schools, but, I´m not glad to say that sometimes it is not a quality time.
    I think I´m going to study narrative therapy deeper. It seams to be a kind of magic key to people´s soul. Thank so much, for this opportunity.

  245. Well, I’m just a Medicine student really interested in stories and behaviors, that’s one of the reasons I’m taking the course, to get to know how we can get to know better the other one, so we can treat them as they deserve. In med school we generally are taught about the disease, and when we’re next the patient, telling their story to our classmates and tutors, we are just focus on that disease, what are the symptons, the phisiology and all these medical stuff (that of course, has its meanings, we need to know the technic), but we forget about whom that persons are, what are they’re suffering, what makes them happy, what are their really stories. I really think this class would help me to be a better professional and, more than that, a better human being.

  246. As an art therapist, narrative therapy seems a natural flow of describing the stories behind the artwork – what is shown/not shown, how the image/figures are portrayed, and what stands out in the picture. This all links to whether there is a rich/thin story, the connections to past, present and future as well as themes. It is interesting how themes can be one-sided and how they are very much shaped by context, family of origin, upbringing, expectations and experiences. And if experiences shape our thinking, then experiencing the creativity of reauthoring a new perspective and life story could enable hope and freedom from the past.
    Narrative therapy can lend a richness to the process of creative art making: preverbal witness writing/poetry or a story can enrich reflection and processing leading to greater integration or insight.

  247. How would you describe the narrative metaphor?
    For me, the narrative metaphor represents series or networks of ideas, images, sensations, and experiences that are threaded and encoded in our episodic memory to form stories about ourselves, others and the world. Paradoxically or cyclically, our stories and the meaning we attribute to them determine and are determined by what we selectively pay attention to. There are dominant and perhaps intrusive stories that overshadow the spotlight for other potentially helpful and hopeful stories; a process that inevitably influences and structures our lives.

    What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?
    For me, thinking about stories in this multidimensional way allows me to open my mind up to the numerous potentialities of the Self – who I am really? (or Selves, who are we inside of me?). All of the sudden the term ‘stories’ feels more light, free, and innate, as opposed to ‘story’ that seems to carry the unrealistic heavy burden of encompassing totality. Thinking about stories in this way may make it possible for me to recognise (and help others to recognise) the richness in other narratives beyond thin descriptions or temporal events, to the deeper, less acknowledged, realm of personal meaning, skills, beliefs, values, hopes, and dreams.

    I appreciate how the approach to narrative therapy centres people as the experts in their own lives and views problems external to people. It was refreshing to read material that uses language to refer to fellow human beings in a neutral, non-hierarchical, collaborative manner, such as “person consulting me” (as opposed to client or patient).

    Thank you and I look forward to the next chapter.

    Regards, Leigh (writing from Dahab, Egypt).

  248. What a lot to reflect on:
    • Opening with the powerful image of the dots, how we so easily move into joining one set of dots, our dominant story; how by noticing other dots (events) either implicitly or explicitly, may lead to linking of other dots that lead to multiple stories, multiple possibilities.
    • Chimamanda Adichie’s telling of the danger of the single story, taking me to how we can relate that to the power of stories of the indigenous people in Australia; the idea of starting with “secondly”, such as with the British discovered Australia or the indigenous people lived here for over 40,000 years; stories of “Muslims” and “Islam” in today’s political climate; and a single story being applied to or by a person robbing them of their dignity as a multi-storied person (with multiple dots), de-legitimising them (reminding me of the power of single storied labels we all so readily use).
    • Alice Morgan’s introduction that is full of gems: the power of curiosity (now seen as a key aspect of being a good leader); the idea of a conversation being a journey with multiple paths to choose from, with each intersection allowing us a choice, with no right way to go (this reminds me of Cavafy’s poem Ithaka); narrative therapy being non-blaming, respectful, seeing problems as separate from the person and the person being the significant player in determining the direction of the conversation (reminding me of our children’s mantra “we are the bosses of ourselves”); her great example of her story of being a competent driver, “thickening” it with events supporting that “dominant story” while “selecting out” ones that do not, or living parallel stories depending on the audience; how the social context (gender, class, race, culture and sexual preference) influence stories and how we see ourselves and perform in different contexts; and the idea of thickening out “thin descriptions” supporting a dominant story into a “rich description” allowing for multiple stories that do not support problems.
    • Michael White’s reference to “giving meaning to some of the more neglected events their lives”, the “centring of the meaning-making skills” and “building a scaffolding”.
    • The Power of Storytelling: the rich interplay among Michael White, Barbara Brooks and Gretchen Miller reminding us of the power of reading and the power of not staying within defined roles, the defined interpretations of our lives.
    • The richness of the Narrative Therapy (Draft) Charter of Story-Telling Rights by David Denborough.
    I see the joy of these concepts is that they can be applied to every aspect of our lives.

  249. The narrative metaphor, in my mind is the way that we as humans organize our experiences and fit ourselves into those experiences. In my clinical work I often see people with rigid definitions of themselves and their lives. They are working with just one story of themselves. These clients are often experiencing anxiety and depression because they do not fit into what they think “should be.” Thinking about these stories as part of a greater tapestry of stories rather than the source of rigid thinking is important. This module has helped me to be with the client in their single story. From that place it was easier to help them discover all the other stories in their life. This feels more collaborative. Recently, it has made possible the idea of integrating stories from the past with stories of the present to make a single, more meaningful picture of a client’s identity.

  250. As a High School Teacher I find the more stories students tell the more complex their lives appear. Having the skills to ‘connect the dots’ and join their stories will be a valuable skill to possess.

    Being able to have students trust in telling their stories and sharing their truths will benefit the students to feel they have been heard, understood and valued. This is a vital part of the healing process for many difficult situations.

    I am located in a small country town in South Australia, I stumbled across this training whilst I was helping a student who felt dismissed by the school counsellor. I had no knowledge of how to help him and I Valued the ability to talk and help this student through their problems.

  251. How would you describe the narrative metaphor?

    For me, it is a symbolic representation of our thoughts, feelings, emotions, life energy, and experiences that are held in memory of a moment or period of time. Even if we have a photograph of an experience, the metaphor allows us to relive the moment in all of its felt-sense experience for us. Behind every metaphor lies opportunities for expansion, embelishment, fantasy, and exploration of additional possibilities. Metaphors for me symbolize endless possibilities of expression.

    What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?

    I enjoy “stumbling” upon beautiful metaphors that appear within a conversation with another person, while listening to a story, or in the state of being aware and present in a moment that captures my attention to the point that my mind holds it in amazement. If I can help my clients see metaphors in their life stories with a similar state of awe, amazement, or curiosity (as mentioned in today’s lessen) I think they would see that hope (also eluded to in one of today’s stories) for being more than the single story they have been telling themself.

  252. How would you describe the narrative metaphor?

    Humans are compelled to create narrative containers to organize and make meaning of the events and relationships in their lives. Everyone’s “life story” is a collection of many threads and storylines. Choosing to tell one of those stories requires us to draw upon a series of sequential events from which we draw meaning, but often those choices are influenced by a pre-existing set of limiting beliefs. To transform thin descriptions to rich ones, we can (and can help clients) enhance a thin storyline by including additional events, especially those that seem contradictory, in an effort to reassess the deeper meaning of a story — and at times even revise it.

    What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?

    I have been teaching memoir writing workshops for two decades, and have seen students undergo extraordinary transformations in the classroom when encouraged to engage with their personal narratives differently. Applying principles of (literary) narrative structure to a life story often causes individuals to perceive their story in a different light, and then allows new insights to be reached about the self. My main challenge as a writing instructor is similar to what Barbara Brooks described — helping writers move beyond a simple, episodic, right-brain accounting of events and into a more nuanced, contextualized, reflective left-brain telling of their stories. The narrative-therapy distinction between thin and rich descriptions are particularly helpful for me, and I hope to incorporate it into some of my lectures.

    Thank you, Dulwich Centre, for such an accessible, well organized, and entertaining module!
    (I’m coming to you from Southern California.)

  253. How would you describe the narrative metaphor?

    The narrative metaphor is a way for people to be motivated to tell their story in multiple ways that they see themselves. This metaphor also facilitates people (and counselor) to move throgh time and contemplate their values, skills, relationships, and changes during their lives. In addition, this facilitates people to be critical of the one story perspective, and be motivated to move beyeond it, and start saying and acting new stories about themselves and their relationship.

    What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?

    Thinking about stories help me to appreciate the complexity of experience. As a clinical practitioner that is trained in a cientific/practitioner model Im exposed to clinical manuals and EBP throght out my training. This sometimes attempt the stories of the people that go to the clinic. So, thinking in a narrative way can make posible for me to look for other stories (beyond the training manual and the problem) and facilitate justice and the right of people to tell their story in a more richer way.

    My first language is Spanish, sorry if any mistake.

  254. The narrative metaphore is a way, Narrative practice work, that in the first way tries to add arguemantation, provided for the people cunsulting rather than for an institution, to the main plot of the people’s stories. In this particular way, what this metaphore tries to do, its to enrich people’s stories, in a way that they ‘catch’ a newer perspective about what’s happening in their lives.

    this metaphore warns us about the danger of a single storie telling: Enclousure, struggling, get bogged, presure, an so on. Thats why this therapy works to desolve this matters, and pushes away all, to increase stories and open endings.

  255. How would you describe the narrative metaphor?
    A process of enquiry by which someone opens to the possibility of multiple story lines, as opposed to a narrow and linear approach to life experience, in an effort to unlock the deeper significance of the experience. Narrative therapy techniques encourage the participant to widen their perspectives, therefore engaging with a richer interpretation of life experience.

    Dominant story lines leak power from the individual, because he/she engages in a cyclic belief system, which at best fosters rigidity. Contrastingly, opening to the possibility of multiple interpretations, and recognising strengths – even in contexts of powerlessness and dysfunction – leaves the individual a more conscious participant in the deconstruction process. In other words, the person is better able to determine or reflect on their own experiences; they are now seeing from multiple perspectives, which places them in a position of power.

    What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?
    This approach gives me permission to look at things from all angles. I tend to fall into the trap of identifying my weaknesses, even in the context of therapy. I see what I have ‘allowed’ to happen, which creates a subordinate position from the outset. The narrative metaphor appeals to me as it is encouraging an unbiased approach, taking me away from limited methods of identification of events in my life.

  256. How would you describe the narrative metaphor?

    The narrative metaphor provides individuals with a recognisable and accessible vehicle for constructing, examining and reforming their personal and broader cultural experiences.
    The use of the narrative metaphor is intrinsically empowering as it creates a framework that is created in and true to the unique “voice” of each person as they tell and re-tell their story.

    Just as we can look at a traditional narrative and examine different themes, perspectives, changes with different story tellers, meanings, morals, lessons etc the same avenues can be applied to personal narratives. I have often found it useful to ask clients questions such as how they think another “character” may tell a certain part of their story, or what they see as a central theme to the current narrative and how they feel about that theme.

    I have found working within the narrative metaphor to be a creative and inspiring experience and one that has universal application.

  257. How would you describe the narrative metaphor?
    people have many stories. Naturally, people try to understand and give meaning to their lives by connecting events and creating story lines. The more a particular story line is reinforced the bigger it becomes and therefore will become a dominant discourse. The issue with having one dominant story is that this can lead to thin stories or skewed stories. Having a dominant discourse means that a person may become clouded, hindering the person from discovering their strengths, true identity, new directions and resources.

    What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?
    So far this training has opened up doors for exploration for myself and people who I work with. Awareness is power, now that I am aware of the way I interpret my life story (and others) I will be able to explore this and unlock strengths and open up more possible directions. With awareness, alternative stories are possible.

  258. How would you describe the narrative metaphor?
    Karen from Brisbane, Australia

    The narrative metaphor is a way of assigning meaning to a person’s experiences and recognising that it is one interpretation of the way things are but that there are many others. The dot metaphor was a helpful visual analogy.

    It was helpful to hear about many stories and understanding about how perspectives can occur when a particular story is told again and again. The material caused me to reflect on how thin stories can be told and perpetuated and my role in this. It gives me confidence to notice and highlight differences and to make explicit my experience of the type of story being told and ways to invite alternative perspectives/interpretations with the potential to help frame new ones.

  259. How would you describe the narrative metaphor?
    The narrative or story metaphor translates our lived and imagined experiences and perceptions in terms of the narratives we create to express and explain them to ourselves and others.

    What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?
    These narratives can be problematic when they are “thin” , that is, when narrowed or reduced to a select constellation of experiences or events that doesn’t allow for other possible interpretations. However, by exploring references and allusions to other events in a person’s life, we can discover new or alternative stories which create and link different sets of experiences. These “thicken” the person’s story, adding multiple layers of complexity and possibility. Thinking about stories in this way allows me to externalise the “problem” and invite the teller to take different perspectives on the story. This opens the possibility of new interpretations, new stories. The aim of this process is to build on stories that promote a person’s positive and healthy view of self and the world around them in their own words, in narratives of their own making.

  260. Hello I’m Terry,
    In describing the narrative metaphor, as I read the article I pictured an object being passed around the community, a visitor in families spending time then moving on to somebody else’s home. Certainly the concept of therapeutic metaphors has been a focus in the types of therapy I offer, the extended story lines or as I conceive them the extended landscapes of problems and the meaning making possibilities of each landscape.
    So I’m describing the narrative metaphor as a curious external yet internal stance in which to talk about and experience at the same time. I imagine it’s useful to be in a story experiencing it and outside of the story commenting upon the past, the present and future contexts selectively and at a safe distance at the same time. I enjoy the safety and the connection the approach offers. I’d go further and describe the narrative metaphor as bringing the awareness that features of stories and there meanings are often tightly held and the metaphor concept by definition is a process moving and unfolding.
    What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?
    I’m currently in the process of working through many ideas and concepts of a future research project. Something I’d like to decide soon and get on with. I’m stuck not being sure what direction, what theme etc. So I’m thinking, as I write, what is the story I’m working on with regards to being stuck or the story of being undecided. Mmmm. Seems to come back to the story of I need more information, more guidance, I need to read more broadly, a story of not having enough to get started! So thinking of stories in this way makes possible, a recognition that I’m the story teller and the end result of the research project is not the meaningful aspect, it is the journey, the people I would meet, the communities I would enter, the knowledge and wisdom gleaned on the journey itself, that’s the meaning of whatever topic I eventually decide to pursue.

  261. It really resonated with me how thin story lines in the lives of clients have already defined and labelled them through their experiences, positive and negative and others ideas, interactions, perspectives and opinions. As therapists, we have the privilege to co-author with the client to “flesh out” their story. I love the concept of the “Dot Exercise”, this gave me a great visual I can hold onto when I am with a client, that we are “multi-storied” in our lives. I am excited to see where these dots take us, the journey that will be taken intersecting along the way, the gaps that will be shown and filled in as new perspectives and forgotten experiences are recognised.

    I loved the talk by novelist Chinamanda Adichie, it made so much sense the danger of seeing our lives as a single story, making us incomplete, there are so many other experiences, perspectives and exposures that make up all of who we are. There is power in our story, the how’s and the why’s and through all this we can begin to make sense of it all, see how our story has shaped our lives and ultimately influence the steps we take, the choices we make and ultimately to empower people through their stories to have a hope for the future, create new possibilities for living and to recognise the hidden potentials and resources within themselves to achieve their breakthrough and break free from the chains that bind them. Love it, what an exciting journey.

    Thank you Dulwich Centre for bringing such a well-rounded, easy to follow online course to further enrich our journey as therapists.


  262. Hello! My name is Alejandra. I’m from Heredia, Costa Rica.
    Great first lesson.

    The first time I heard about Narrative Therapy was last year in a short talk with a great man called Carlos Chico, from Chile. In just about 3 hours, he was able to transmit his passion and respect for this form and ethics on therapy. And by taking this first lesson I can begin to understand why.

    I find it to be such an amazing approach to empower people’s lives and assist groups and communities in building better stories for themselves. I find it fascinating, as on one hand it presents the therapist as a gentle collaborator in the search of the person’s own answers for its difficulties or problematic events and on the other hand deeply respectful of the knowledge that already exists in the person, community or group.

    ***How would you describe the narrative metaphor?***
    I’ll describe it as a space for a person’s self-discovery through the recognition of the limitations -imposed or self-imposed- in his/her life story. With a consequent development of new stories, richer in content and in possibilities for him or herself to achieve a better life journey, created and sustained by events of his/her own life.

    ***What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?***
    It makes change possible, almost tangible. It generates a thicker sense of empowerment from the inside out and a more real sense of respect for the complexities and multi-storied lives of others.

    Greatful for the effort in putting together this course, I’m really looking forward to the next chapters.

  263. “With each step that I take with the person consulting me, we are opening more possible directions” , these words of Alice Morgan are in my opinion one of the “fil rouge” of this first chapter.
    Open more possible directions means help the person to see that him or her is “multistoried”.
    The person is the author of not just one story, but of many stories, and as an author he or she has the incredible power to write and re-write stories according to his or her inner self.
    Every person is submerged by stories, some of them belong to the individual and some to the community. A therapist help the person to avoid the “thin description” and its effects (a very limited vision of ourselves and the world) by inviting him or her in “new territories of life”.
    Finally, I was really impressed by the Charter and in particular I found the Article 4 very powerful. This article declares the right to be free from having problems caused by trauma and injustice, in other words be free from the consequences of “bad stories”, the stories that we didn’t choose but we experienced as a passive character. Article 4 is an hymn to freedom: the freedom for every person to be considered “other” from his or her problem.

  264. My name is Daleen Pieters and I live in Alberton, South Africa
    Firstly I can not omit to say that I can hardly contain my excitement when broadening my knowledge of Narrative Therapy and the Narrative Metaphor, as it has played such a crucial part in the retelling of my own life story, with Gys Els and David Epston as my preferred co-authors on my journey by means of technology (e-mails) and face to face consultations with them both.

    When understanding that the Problem Story is but a thin strand of a rich life, we do not only acknowledge that the person is not the problem, the problem is the problem, but we also acknowledge that the person has a rich story to tell and we are the respectful and privileged listeners. What an honour!
    The dangers of single stories as explained by Chimamanda motivates me to listen carefully to the telling of a story in order to find the clues for a thicker and diverse plot. Single stories are not just misleading, but can do so much damage to the person’s dignity, self respect and future prospects and should therefore be challenged with respect and curiosity, with the person’s consent and with the therapist as a co-traveler on this road to discovery.
    Acknowledging people as experts in their own lives, as mentioned by Alice Morgan, empowers them to find the hidden stories – those moments of strength or insight that they have forgotten about or misplaced or was dominated by the problem story.
    I think Michael White expressed the roll of Narrative Therapy beautifully when he described it as “a place to stand when dealing with issues and revisiting difficult experiences” because it gives the person insight into their personal strengths and alternative stories and the Problem story is no longer the only place where they can stand.
    The Charter of Storytelling Rights is a very exciting concept. Living in a country where human rights were ignored and abused for many years through dehumanizing of people based on race, I feel that it is crucial that justice and therapy should be interlinked. Even on a personal level, if a person is seeking help with writing a new, multi-faceted story with a thick plot, whatever the problem story was, the person’s story-telling rights should be upheld, respected and honoured. I just attended a Masterclass Seminar by David Epston and he repeatedly mentioned the roll of the Narrative Practitioner as a respectful and curious listener. I believe the Charter of Story-Telling Rights re-enforces that idea of being a respectful listener.
    Thinking about stories in terms of thick or thin plots with alternatives and counter-stories, makes it easier to know what types of questions to ask to dethrone the problem story as the dominant theme in a person’s life.

    The Narrative Metaphor gives the therapist a clear idea of the desired outcome that is not just based on an abstract concept. We have all read good novels and we have all read bad novels. We know what to look for in a good book and this makes it possible to assist a person in finding the best-seller within their lives by skillfully and respectfully asking the questions that will help them unearth their alternative, rich and descriptive story.

  265. Great lesson. I learned a lot. I really enjoyed Chimamanda’s talk. It caught my attention what she said about Africa and how people think Africa is a country. I was born in El Salvador and I always knew I am an American because I was born in the American continent. However, some people say “America” as if it is a country not a continent. I have news, America is a continent and the United States is a country.

  266. I find the notion that our lives are shaped not by a single story, but by multiple stories that intersect and intertwine, fascinating. I also find it is crucial to grasp this notion in order to understand the complexity and uniqueness of human existence. Chimamanda Adichie speaks of this with such eloquence that at the end of her TED talk, it’s imposssible to imagine life experience in any other way. I have used her talk in my teaching practice many times to help undergraduate students begin to understand the power and influence of stories in a broader cultural context and also to help them understand their self-stories. It is timely to be reminded of this now.

    I also found the visual nature of the dot exercise useful for understanding the interconenectedness of stories. I am always mindful that we each learn in different ways – the visual demonstration of the concept of the narrative metaphor was a great way of acknowledging this by allowing other perceptions to come into play.

    And finally, it was terrific to be reminded that one of the crucial strengths of Narrative Therapy is its desire to position individuals central to their own lives with the potential to become active agents of change in a collaborative partnership.

  267. Wow- thank you so much for your website. As a ‘starting out’ practitioner your course and overall resources on the site are amazing. I have had very little experience with narrative therapy – given the push currently in academia for CBT- thank you for the opportunity to ‘expand my tool box’.

    Initial reflections are that all of us are made up of a complex layer, of stories- in fact I resonate with the term ‘multistories’. I feel that some stories may even play out in a parallel fashion, so we can be experiencing different stories simultaneously. I also feel that environment may have an impact on how we tell our stories and trust would play a part in respect to whom we feel safe to tell our stories.

  268. The Danger of a Single Story by Chimamanda Adichie – no matter how many times I watch and re-watch, I find new and different ways that I have focused solely on a single story in my own life and how that has (perhaps) impacted my self-perception/esteem/confidence today. Adichie’s tenants can also be applied in my clinical/community work. From a ‘professional standpoint’, narrative practice in general supports my belief that the more I learn, the less I know – in that I will never and can never possibly be the expert in the lives of clients who consult me as a social worker. This supports me to ‘dig deeper’, ‘stretch’ or ‘exercise’ and highlight non-problem saturated stories that have been (perhaps) hidden amongst the natural stress and turmoil of life.

    I am excited to reflect further on these concepts and find ways to integrate them into my personal and professional life.

  269. Kia ora,
    I guess for me, narrative is about allowing people to see themselves from a different angle. To see the power, strength, determination, resilencies, as opposed to fixing on the powerless state or the problem saturated experience, and fixing that as truth. Narrative is entirely new to me and its so interesting just how much impact stories have on us – the stories we hold about ourselves and the stories we tell about others. there is a lot of power held in stories. looking at stories as power-full, i start to see that there is a need to be mindful of stories; to positively challenge stories; to explore stories; to better understand the person, for me, it might begin with hearing the stories they tell themselves about who they are.

  270. I like the basic idea of narrative therapy that people live a lot of stories. For each of us is important to know that we can always choose a story to live. I also agree that we live in the context of events; that our behavior and our psyche behave differently depending on our environment. Through the principles of narrative therapy, I decided to work in such approach.

  271. I appreciated the dot/string metaphor and it’s application to narrative practice. I like the way it illustrates how each of us have several stories in our lives happening at once and how dominant stories are created and upheld. By thinking of stories in this way it makes alternative stories possible and assists as a practitioner in thickening a client’s alternative story by highlighting the same. This has helped me gain a greater understanding around narrative practice and simply the magic that can appear to exist in finding and thickening an alternative story.

  272. Dear All, thank you so much for offering this course for free. My name is Ute Weitbrecht, and I am living in São Paulo, Brazil. I am German, and therefore try my best to express myself in English.
    Below please find my reflection to the Narrative Metaphor. I very much appreciate your feedback.

    How would you describe the narrative metaphor?

    Through story telling we can express and make public images that we have created in our minds. Our verbal and non verbal expressions are indicative of our thoughts and feelings and crucial to each storyline.

    What might thinking about stories in this way make possible for you?

    Thought patterns and belief patterns are inherent to education, life experiences, socio-cultural backgrounds etc. Almost unnoticed they become the lenses through which we look at and experience ourselves. They affect our choices of verbal and non verbal expressions with which we create social realities. Through story telling a light can be shed on these patterns making them more evident and thus re signification can begin.

  273. I would like to say a special thank you for the Narrative Therapy Charter. Sometimes it is already a big help when you just hear an acknowledgement of your right to feel what you feel, experience what you experience and deal with circumstances as you can. This is put together beautifully.

  274. I’ve been fascinated by narrative and involved in its practice since the 90’s. After some time away this is the perfect refresher. I was fortunate enough to attend a training by Michael White himself and it was wonderful to revisit his writing and hear his voice. I do wish others could experience how very vibrant and passionate he was, as I don’t think it’s evident in this recording, fascinating as it was.

    I came away with various thoughts to ponder:
    The concept of catharsis in ancient Greece. That an experience would change the person’s ideas thoughts feelings and be transformed in some way.

    The importanceof a person’s connection to a wider world – none of us are just the individual. It’s problematic to see the true self as separate from the context or environment – a cul de sac.

    Michael talking about Finding another place to stand where identity is no longer defined by the trauma.

    Trauma interrupts stream of consciousness memory and disrupts our ability to access ways our old coping strategies

    The deepest resonance for me though was David talking about the therapy space being a place to act for justice and modeling the kinds of conversations we need to participate in, and the challenges we need to make and accept, to ensure that we do not inadvertently ally ourselves with injustice.

  275. I really enjoyed the dot to dot exercise, such a simple but effective way to explain thick and thin stories. We can choose how we connect our dots. I also really like David Denborough’s charter of storytelling, I have put it on my wall to challenge myself about whether I am upholding these rights with my clients.

  276. Thank you Dulwich Centre for offering this course online so that I could better understand Narrative Therapy and how it can be used to support the families that I work with. I found the dot exercise to be a fun and interest way of introducing the concept of Narrative Therapy.

  277. I very much enjoyed this introduction to Narrative Therapy. I am currently an English high school teacher who writes and wants to start her own business in counselling through story. So much of the resource materials resonated with me. The idea that the stories that we tell ourselves are usually based on thin description and the way to change that is through looking at other alternative stories that could exist within our own contexts/frameworks is so similar to how I work with the students at school that require welfare support.

    Thinking about my own self, I realise that I have constructed many narratives throughout my life pertaining to who I perceive myself to be. My default narrative is connected to the story of the victim. I have worked hard as an adult to construct the survivor narrative so that my default narrative holds significantly less power. Amazing concept – in my own life and in my own work with others, deconstructing the dominant narrative, and replacing it with a stronger and more positive narrative can really impact our quality of life.

    I also liked the idea of the ‘client’ becoming the writer of their own story and the counsellor, a facilitator/light along the way. I have always believed that we own our stories and our lives, and that only we can change or fix them.

  278. Since storytelling is such an important part of all cultures, I am excited when I think about the possibilities of this method of helping clients as a way to show our similarities across cultures. Working in Aboriginal communities where the value of storytelling is already accepted, it opens new doors to help and break down barriers, while empowering the people who need to tell their stories. I think it will be vitally important to chose analogies that are culturally-relevant. This is an exciting journey indeed!

  279. I am doing this initial work to extent my understanding of narrative, inside of a self-help movement. To grow our movement and obtain this by growing ourselves and our own narratives. To find solutions embedded in our own experience… …creating awareness and connection with each other…

    …I need to spend more time with this first chapter…

  280. Thank you for access to this fantastic resource. Previously I have had a minimal training in narrative therapy and have found this module excellent and thought-provoking. The richness of resources in the module mimics the richness we can find in thickening and developing our stories. In particular, I loved the dot exercise and can see it being useful in therapy sessions. Alice Morgan’s “possibilities for conversations” resonated with me as the decisions we make in therapy sessions about which story to follow can be challenging.
    Chimamanda’s talk was an excellent reminder to apply this to my own life and my use of stories.
    Overall this module has been an eye-opening and exciting start to my narrative therapy journey.

  281. I have learned so many good things from this module. This is how I have understood the narrative metaphor:
    I would describe it as a means to understand how life stories are told and what impact this has. Stories are made up of events. These events are linked together to form a story of someone’s experiences. However the events that are linked together are privileged whilst others are subordinated and neglected. If the story told is a problem saturated one, the events chosen will be consistent. However, what we know is that lives are made up of numerous events that can contradict the dominant story. Therefore many strands of stories can be told about one person, which can exist amongst the problematic experiences. This thickens the narratives of people’s lives which can be empowering for those who have been negatively impacted by one negative story of their lives. Most likely, other people who have more power can confirm that negative story in theory description of that person. That means that living with the awareness of one problem saturated story can be an oppressive experience.

  282. We all know the story of the two shoe sales people sent by their shoe company to a third world country to investigate possible business opportunities. The first reports back: “We can’t do business there: nobody wears shoes.” The second reports back: “We can do so much business there: nobody wears shoes.”

    Having been introduced to the notion of thin description as not providing us with an accurate representational richness around the many stories we all experience and embody, I have now begun to think about the fact that when different people are presented with the same situation (eg: family dysfunction, devastating bushfire, a non-shoe-wearing nation), they can construct entirely different narratives for themselves in relation to that information. One event is many stories.

    Working with the narrative metaphor provided by the client (or client group), the role of the skilled narrative therapist, as I understand it, is to identify the dominant trauma, problem or obstacle as presented by the client. The narrative therapist then facilitates and encourages the individual, group or community to recognise the many different interpretations their key experiences are open to, and to investigate, discover and embrace those interpretations (ie: those stories) which are empowering, useful, healthy and self-affirming, and which enable them to move forward through and beyond problems, traumas, negative stories, negative self-talk, and so on.

    I work in public libraries and community centres. Coming from a strong literature background, I have a long-standing interest in stories and storytelling, and how we – individually and collectively – understand and define ourselves through (both nonfiction and fictional) narrative. I am also interested in the power of story to bring people together, to solidify relationships, to connect the disenfranchised, to make visible the invisible, and to contribute to a healthy and robust community.

    Traditionally, public libraries privilege books and authors over readers. My work in reader engagement and development follows a reader-centric model, and this feels entirely in keeping with the narrative therapy approach.

    Suzanne, Adelaide, South Australia

  283. The narrative metaphor allows us to take into perspective the truly complexity of one’s life. It allows an individual to discover its active role as a “meaning-maker” and to regain control over the events, even over those most scattered and painful.

    As a career counselor working with immigrants, I am trying to introduce the narrative practice into a different field then therapy. I have found it as a powerful empowering tool to boost motivation and self-confidence in people experiencing not just unemployment but also segregation and despair. Narrative practice introduces a new holistic way of approaching career counseling, a way that can take into account the whole individual with its values, beliefs and array of experiences. It’s an inspiring and amazing journey!

  284. I’ve only recently been properly introduced to narrative therapy (workshop by Vikki Reynolds in Oakville, ON, Canada, February 2016) and I find it absolutely fascinating. Chimamanda’s TED talk was a wonderful illustration of how our stories can limit, or expand, our view of other people, the world, and ourselves and our place in the world. Jill Freedman and Gene Combs’s dot exercise is very helpful, and I can see myself using that as a means to explain narrative approaches to my clients. I sometimes try to describe this to my clients as a movie broken down into many, many frames and what sense we would have of any given film if we were only shown some of these frames. If we were shown different frames would we have a different sense of the film and it’s message? I also find this approach to be much more client-centred than CBT/CPT, particularly in the context of the storytelling Charter of Rights. What NT makes possible for me and for my clients is the facilitated transition from a trauma narrative to a resistance narrative for which my clients can take ownership. Similar to Shauna Ianson’s comment, above, I’m looking forward to being quieter during my sessions, getting out of the way of my clients’ exploration of their problem story and watching for the emergence of alternative plot lines.

  285. I so appreciate this introduction to the narrative metaphor. It is remarkable to see how we live our lives and create our sense of identity through the stories we tell about ourselves as well as how we are influenced by the stories told about us by others and by society. The invitation to be “on the look out” for contradictions and unattended experiences is exciting. I feel peaceful knowing that when I’m working with others as a school counselor that these alternative plot lines will emerge simply by allowing them to openly explore their problem story–I don’t have to create that alternative for them. I can’t wait for the next lesson to learn more about externalizing the problem.

    • Hi Shauna,
      I just want to comment on your response. As a teacher myself, just finishing my Master’s in Counselling, I can certainly see how narrative therapy would be extremely effective for students. As I go through this Chapter, I often think of how my students certainly could change their narrative from “being down and cutting” to one where there is hope and goals in the future. I can see them learning this themselves, as you point out so eloquently, it is just up to us to guide them with the proper questions.

  286. This was a great introduction to Narrative Therapy and the problematic nature of a single story. It has me thinking about my own stories that I tell about myself and how they are limited given the “thin descriptions” I often use. It also made me think about how I contribute to other people’s stories in both positive and negative ways.

  287. Before this course I knew nothing about Narrative Therapy. The more I read the more I love. The recognition that it is not a single story but multiple stories that make a person who are they are. The dot exercise was really helpful in understanding how multiple stories can be drawn out and how they all connect. I love the reminder that it isn’t one conversation, one event, accident or illness that defines a person. There are multiple conversations, multiple life events and many stories that will all contribute to a persons life.

  288. I thoroughly enjoyed this first chapter, it made me think how limited we are when looked at only under one point of view, if we have just ‘one’ story, how this is restrictive! Due to the complexity of the human being and the amount of interactions all the time, choose just one look way is really give up a world of possibilities. This sent me the idea of freedom, so the relation made by Michael White with a bird has resonance and meaning for me.
    Listen Chimamamnda telling her story, besides having been delightful, showed me in practice the richness of livings, experiences and feelings that we can gain only through new ways of seeing and how strong this impact in everybody lives.
    I was trained in using a Narrative Approach as Clinical Psychologist in Brazil and I had the pleasure of experiencing in my practice the power of to gain various possibilities offers a person, something besides having a new identity, something like as having a new life. But always good to remember how important is to be attentive for this at work, as a mother, in my relationships, at all my life. Thanks!

  289. Beyond a little previous reading – I am new to Narrative Therapy. But as soon as I began to read about the way we tell and/or adopt stories about ourselves – I recognised this and could apply it to my own life.

    I haven’t finished this chapter yet – but I’m thinking of the way the “thin story” creates a barrier between the carrier of the story and others – like a veil, a screen, a mask – and how important it is to look through and beyond this barrier.

    I find myself wondering – this thin story may still serve as a form of connection – eg: between a child and their family – disrupting this story may well cause conflict and/or confusion – and we would need to be prepared for that.

    Sometimes the mask may have been an attempt to find a way to interact with others – but it may not be as productive as first thought.

    I’ll be keen to find ways to see past the barrier, and also for suggestions of how to support people to re-story themselves.

  290. I live and work in Berlin, Germany I work in Film and Television. One of your participants said the following: “I can’t remember who it was that said ‘history is written by the winners’ but implicit in this statement is the acknowledgement that there is always more than one story, and that stories are can be both empowering and disempowering, for individuals and for nations.” This comment resonates so entirely with me here and now, in Berlin. I am busy documenting the “stories” the Syrian refugees are telling… Due to so many formal requirements to start a new life here many of the refugees tell you what they think you want to hear and what might help their applications for residency. After just this one online module I feel more empowered to ask the questions that might help me find parallel, or even entirely new storylines that empower these courageous people to move from feeling like losers to feeling like winners.

    • Hi Francine. Thanks for your post. I’ll be visiting Berlin in September and am wondering where in the city this work is being done.

  291. This first lesson certainly stimulated dialogue within me and with others. I am in graduate school, learning to listen attentively to the stories of my clients. The narrative metaphor is one that I have identified with since childhood. I believe that each day is another sentence in the book of my life,that each decision adds to the plot, that new characters are being introduced while others fade into the background. This metaphor comes naturally to me and is very helpful to me in conceptualizing how cultural context is so influential for me, for my clients.

    Chimamanda’s story made great impact upon my already developing identity as a therapist. How I see others is informed by the context of my culture, fortunately my context is also beginning to add more and more stories from these ‘others’ and, in the process, giving me a much fuller understanding of humanity and our many stories we all have, if one would but listen.

  292. This course is a treasure of inspiring people and idea’s.The narrative metaphor is a new way of looking at people and their problems. The focus does not have to be on solving the problems, but on how people can live a life that they prefer. The problem is not the only story, but a dot in a richer story.
    As I try to use some of the ideas, I notice that it will take a whole lot of practice to leave the expert position, which is so dominant present in our hospital (I am an occupational therapist in a psychiatric department of a general hospital in Belgium)
    Looking forward to more

  293. Listening to Chimamamnda’s talk was thought provoking and laughter evoking.
    Really enjoyable.

  294. I have thoroughly enjoyed this introduction to Narrative Metaphor. The concept of people living “multi-storied lives” has not only resonated with me at a professional level as a therapist but has enabled me to look at dominant stories of my life and connect the dots to the other stories around it. Chimamamnda’s TED talk has inspired me to look at how my perceptions about people and world come from the single story I have witnessed or heard. It has encouraged me to adopt the stance of curiosity that Narrative Therapy stands for. Her talk helped me understand the association between the narrative metaphor and the socio-cultural experiences. The understanding that stereotypes are in fact he result of a single story and therefore incomplete, has given me a different perspective of now working against stereotypes. It has helped me understand the significance of exception or alternate stories not only at an individual level but at a societal and cultural level.
    The ideas of introducing the temporal dimension of experiences and narratives as well as looking for details and complexities to create thick descriptions are now beginning to consolidate and hold significance in my understanding of the narrative metaphor. Further, the concept of “Catharsis” as described by M. White as being transformative and bringing about a shift in one’s sense of identity helps me look at it in a rather positive sense and something that I would actively want to engage in. And this is in contrast to the not so desirable connotations that the term has in my cultural context.
    I would thus describe the narrative metaphor as the focus on these thick descriptions of multiple stories, beyond the dominant story, along a temporal dimension. This of course is in the conscious presence of the given socio-cultural context, involving re-authoring stories collaboratively to being about a transformation.

    Engaging with stories as descriptions of events and experiences and believing in the presence of multiple stories will certainly help me re-author the narratives of my personal experiences. It will help me look back at events and experiences temporally and with a focus on specific details and look around for other connecting stories to be able to identify the different stories that were not so dominant for so long. This is in fact going to be ‘cathartic’ for me. I’ve already started the process by beginning to look at alternate stories for some of the more recent occurrences in my life. At a professional level as a therapist, it will certainly help me look at problems as external to people and begin a collaborative process of looking for alternate stories and creating thick descriptions.

    Here’s to more learning and sharing!

    Lamia Bagasrawala, Mumbai, India

  295. I really like the concept of the dot exercise, and the way this provides a visual representation that from one thin line we can weave many, many stories. I am a musician and rely heavily upon sensory experiences to weave my own stories and to understand the stories of others. I use hand drumming a lot in my own work and find that individual stories are shared, heard and developed very naturally using this particular context. Above all, this medium celebrates the unique nature of each story within a spirit of adventure that simultaneously builds strong connections with self and others.

  296. I understand the narrative as a metaphor of our experience. When we are exploring our stories, we are not entrenched in them. We are able to practice reflective thinking, curiously seeking to recognize and understand the interpretations that we hold in our lives and how they shape our perspective of the world and ourselves. Developing the ability to see our stories allows us to get space from the events/our experience in our lives, allows us to imagine other, richer stories, affords us the ability to gain some levity from negative stories, develops more flexibility both in our thinking, perception and behavior, and ultimately leaves us with the freedom to more actively create the self and life we want to live.

  297. Maintaining a stance of curiosity is the reason I became interested in narrative practices.Curiosity is what makes us want to look for alternate stories,for a richer understanding of the the original thin description – “a thin description which can lead to thin conclusions about peoples identities” (Alice Morgan) The phrase “the person is not the problem,the problem is the problem” to me is a powerful one.How often do we take things at face value? Make snap judgements about people we barely know? Chimamanda’s discourse showed us how globally stereotypes perpetuated by media/books/films can lead to ignorance fear and prejudice,”show over and over again a people as one thing,only one thing”…but finding multiple stories/narratives regarding race or culture helps break those stereotypes down.On a one to one level, maintaining our stance of curiosity by asking questions we genuinely don’t know the answers to not only de-centres ourselves,but allows those consulting us to take the lead in re-authoring their own lives.How cool is that? Rock on chapter two.

  298. I thoroughly enjoyed this first chapter – thank you for making this online resource available.

    For me the narrative metophor is the development of possibilities, the ability to see beyond one story and map many different ones on to and around a certain situation (including the points of view of the different people involved in the story).

    I think Chimamanda’s talk reflected this beautifully. Her talk is so relevant today, especially with the dominant narratives that are abounding in the media around people who are having to leave their home country and seek refuge in another (in sometimes extremely dangerous ways). I know here in the UK there are some very prominant ‘single stories’ which do not appreciate the complexities.

    I work with children within the school context as an Educational Psychologist. I hear many thin stories and I try hard to work with the children, families and school staff to find alternatives in the stories that they share. I find using narrative therapy helps greatly and just this first chapter of the course as inspired me to try harder with developing possibilities.

    Looking forward to the next chapter.

  299. I am thinking about meeting a salesperson who is trying to sell me something I do not need or want. The question to ask is what the salesperson is NOT telling me. What the salesperson is telling me is one single thin story. If I know all the stories dealing with the said product, I may not buy it.

    Chimamanda talk is absoutely insightful. I truly enjoyed her talk.

  300. Wow, thank you Dulwich Centre for this resource. Whilst many of these articles and clips are familiar to me, to read and listen to them all together with the focus on stories has added so much richness to my understandings. In particular I loved what Michael said in the radio interview likening our language of inner life to the flight of a bird; perchings and transitions. What wonderful freedom that metaphor conjours up, and it reminds me or gives me permission for my therapeutic work with people to fly a bit more freely!

  301. It reminds me not to judge or characterise a person by a single story, I will be mindful that they are so much more than the story they tell themselves, and that if it is a problem saturated one, it is likely to have been generated by other people. I will take a curious stance, and ask them questions, to discover what their journey has been and uncover at least a few of the narrative strands of their life.

  302. Watching and listening to Chimamanda’s stories made me realise why I had been feeling increasingly frustrated and saddened at work when over hearing colleagues define individuals by a singular unfortunate act or by applying unhelpful diagnoses to them. The richness of peoples lives and lived experiences are far greater than any stereotype. Chimamanda has reminded me of the importance of gentle curiosity. With colleagues I now find myself saying so here is the person’s diagnosis, now tell me what journey got them there.

  303. I was trained in using a Narrative Approach at university, but have found myself drifting away from that since commencing practice. I felt revisiting it now after gaining experience would be helpful. I found Chimamanda Adichie’s talk fascinating. I’m always aware that my clients have more than one story, but the dot to dot illustration was a great way of showing it pictorially. I wouldn’t mind making a copy of that illustration and putting it up somewhere to remind me of the richness of people’s lives. The connection between story-telling and narrative therapy was great too. Thanks.

  304. Thank you to Dulwich Centre for opening up this course- Narrative Therapy really resonates with me especially as I think of the stories of many of my students. Chimamanda Adichie shares a wonderful collection of stories, I think that everyone should listen to her speak she is a most eloquent and inspiring person. Her words encourage me to remind myself and others not to dwell on the current stories we are hearing about our Muslim friends- stories of terrorism and jihad which have a tendency to override the stories of a beautiful peace-loving, caring and compassionate group of people.

    Stories give us a frame of reference for our lives but too often we focus only on a single story where we often get stereotypes and an incomplete picture. Stories matter and they can empower us but we need to balance out the many stories in life- just a single story can rob individuals of their dignity if they focus on the negative. We need to enjoy the rich tapestry of the many stories that make us the people we are.

  305. I found this absolutely fascinating. Listening to Chimamanda speak made me consider the relationship between the stories we tell ourselves as individuals, and those we tell ourselves as cultures. I can’t remember who it was that said ‘history is written by the winners’ but implicit in this statement is the acknowledgement that there is always more than one story, and that stories are can be both empowering and disempowering, for individuals and for nations.

    What I love about the narrative metaphor is the way in which it invites possibility, new perspective and re-authoring. I love the way Michael White compared the process of narrative therapy to the process of writing: as a writer, this really resonates for me. I spent a lot of time in my early career working as an English teacher with individuals who had never had the chance to develop their literacy skills fully. I was amazed by how powerfully this impacted on their life experiences and it sometimes seemed that the only way they had learned how to describe themselves, and their lives, was through scripts which had been given to them, or imposed upon them. What joy there was in working with them to open up language as a medium of expression: often it had a transformative effect on their lives, with further reach than I had imagined.

  306. Hi to everyone…

    Firstly – I would to say how much I am enjoying and am grateful for this online course. I do see it as a real opportunity to take this new way of looking at stories into my life and my practice.

    I think that the word tapestry used in the closing video sums up perfectly the narrative metaphor. Our lives are incredibly complex and incredibly vibrant with experiences jostling continuously for acknowledgement and position.

    I see our narratives as calling on so many different mediums, from our senses to the more visceral and intellectual interpretations of the world around us, that it is sometimes hard to believe that we can get through a day of experiencing without turning into a dribbling wreck by the end of it!……

    I enjoyed listening to the Charter and Article 4 resonated deeply with me. I feel that problems can be like looking up from the bottom of a deep well. When you shout for help, even if you are heard it can feel like the rescuers will not always be able to reach in to pull you out.

    I think that exposing the problem as a type of entity in itself is incredibly cathartic for people as it allows them to see the problem for what it is and not concentrate too hard on the sides of the well.

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