Pseudo-Encopresis: From avalanche to victory, from vicious to virtuous cycles — Michael White

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In this paper, encopresis is considered from the perspective of Second Cybernetics (Maruyama 1963). In families where these symptoms feature, all members are considered to be inadvertently participanting in an uncontrolled avalanche of events. All members appear to be powerless to affect the course of these events, and experience the symptoms of encopresis as oppressive.
The goal of treatment is to arrest this avalanche of events and assist family members to triumph over the symptoms. A map for the therapy of encopresis based on this approach is detailed