Posted by on Jun 24, 2015 in Uncategorised | 242 comments

“The person is not the problem, the problem is the problem”. These words of Michael White have become well-known within the field of narrative therapy. In this chapter we will explore ways of externalizing problems and the possibilities this brings.

Image from Denborough, David. 2014. Retelling the Stories of Our Lives: Everyday Narrative Therapy to Draw Inspiration and Transform Experience. Norton Books: New York 

The following questions and answers about ‘externalising’ were created in response to regular requests from practitioners. We’ve tried to respond to some of the questions that are most commonly asked in training contexts. This article was first published in The International Journal of Narrative Therapy and Community Work, 2002 No.2, and can be found in the book Narrative therapy: Responding to your questions, compiled by Shona Russell & Maggie Carey (Adelaide: Dulwich Centre Publications, 2004).

Externalising – Commonly Asked Questions


This is a story of ‘Sugar’ by Aunty Barbara Wingard. It’s a story about trying to find new ways of working, of trying different things and taking new steps.

Please find the article here: Introducing ‘Sugar’

This short film gives helps us visualise what ‘externalising’ problems can look like and make possible..

In collaboration with the World Health Organisation Matthew Johnstone tells the story of overcoming the “black dog of depression”. More information on the book can be found here: http://matthewjohnstone.com.au/


In this presentation, Mark Hayward draws on Michael White’s ideas described in the book Maps of Narrative Practice. Mark takes us through Michael White’s Statement of Position Map 1 and how this map enables externalising conversations. Within this presentation Mark also invites you to chart an externalising conversation. We hope this video will enable you to begin using externalising ideas with people you are meeting with!

Please download the following interactive documents.

Statement Of Position Map Powerpoint presentation
Joe transcript


“Externalizing conversations in which the problem becomes the problem, not the person, can be considered counter-practices to those that objectify people’s identities. Externalizing conversations employ practices of objectification of the problem against cultural practices of objectification of people” (White, 2007, 26).

White, M. 2007. Maps of Narrative Practice. Norton Books: New York



Further resources

If you wish to learn more about externalising problems, you may wish to enrol in our Externalising Conversations online course


For Reflection

Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why?

What sort of problems could  be externalised in your context?

What difference might this make?



Now please consider talking with others below about the ideas, questions and wonderings these resources and questions have raised for you! Please include where you are writing from (City and Country). Thanks!



  1. I’m really enjoying these online chapters on Narrative Practice. I work with people who have co-occurring substance use and mental illness diagnoses. I am intrigued by the story of “Sugar” and how that approach could be used with groups in a substance use treatment center. I think that externalizing the addiction and the accompanying problems could be very helpful for clients who are trying to detach themselves from an identity of “Addict”.

    I also really appreciated Mr. Hayward going through the Statement of Position Map 1 and especially the chart. The example of how conversations move from one aspect to another within this map was very helpful.

    I can’t wait to complete the rest of this training!

  2. Being based in a large indigenous community, I found the article titled “Introducing Sugar” very helpful. I’m excited about the potential for adapting this concept when unpacking the issues related to alcoholism and binge drinking which are endemic problems in my community.
    As a foster carer, this chapter has helped me to put words to my thoughts about the foster/adoption triad. “The problem is not the child or the biological parents or the foster family, the problem is the problem.” This concept is central to helping my foster child to explore her understanding of her story.

  3. I think this concept is very valuable and applicable to practice as it provides a novel ways for clients to look at their situation and explore it in greater death. One question that comes up for me is what to do when a client is particularly attached to their problem? I have met individuals who are very “at home” in their depression and use it to explain everything that they do. I feel that externalizing depression in these contexts may minimize the problem for the client. Has anyone been in a situation where they have worked through this before?

    • Hi Thea, Thanks for your comment and your interest. There’s nothing about externalising practices that seeks to ‘minimise the problem’ .. .in fact its a practice that involves acknowledgement of the effects and operations of any experience (positive or negative). It also seeks to assist the person in discerning what may be helpful and what may not be about any phenomenon. hope this is helpful. Good luck with your explorations! Warmly, David Denborough (Dulwich Centre)

  4. Each text was a piece of a puzzle building a bigger picture for me of what Narrative Therapy is.

    The PPT has helpful sample questions for me to start practicing the different language practices of NT so I can become more seamless and natural in this way of thinking and speaking.

    “Sugar” gave a great tip about who the group is culturally and individually. Giving questions beforehand scaffolds confidence for participants to develop and ask their own curiosity questions when the time is right. I also liked how “drama” therapy through role play was shown. In the PPT art therapy was also mentioned “Could you draw a picture of this problem for me?”. I am personally curious to learn more about how drama/art/play therapy can work within the Narrative Therapy philosophy/framework.

    The Commonly-asked-questions gave even more chances to practice with words and ways of speaking/thinking that can give the problem a living form.

    This chapter of the course solidifies for me that I stumbled onto a practice that really suits my ways of thinking and I am looking forward to learning so much more.

  5. Hello from Texas. I appreciate the information in this chapter, especially moving from naming and connecting to taking a position and making a value statement. I can see how all four stages of externalizing really begin to empower the client. I am most excited to help the client move toward taking a position in regard to the problem and establishing their values in relation to the problem. Great teaching. Really enjoying this course.

  6. Gelmar C.
    Tampa, FL (USA)

    I particularly enjoyed the Externalising – Commonly asked questions (Maggie Carey & Shona Russell) resource. It provided practical guidelines for common problems that I have experienced during therapy. Externalizing truly brings the client into an equal position with the therapist to consult and work together against the problem.

    I plan to externalize more problems with children in my practice who are experiencing ADHD, depression, and anxiety. I believe that it will allow them to trust the process further, understand that they can make changes/have power over the problem, and collaborate with others at school and home.

  7. The PPT file regarding the statement of position was identified very helpful with some good example sentences I could use with my family. structured and well-guiding.

    I would be able to externalise my issue in relation to watching too many dramas on Netflix these days and then explore its impact on my life along with how it has impacted other people as well.

    As the material indicated, externalising the problem would enable more thick and rich description, and distant myself from the issue.

  8. Really thorough session. I feel that mapping tools is very useful. It seems is would be especially when struggling or not feeling effective. I also appreciate taking a stand about who the expert is.
    I enjoyed learning from Jack, the pouncing wolf monster expert. ☺

  9. In the context of special needs in which i work, externalising is useful as a way of talking about problematic anti-social behaviours with lightness and playfulness. I already use social stories as a way of talking with participants who have behaviours which cause them to be excluded from public events. Externalising techniques shown in this chapter show me how i can further explore difficult subjects without judgement and using the language which is the most appropriate i.e. not pathologising or steeped in pyscho jargon.

  10. I love the idea that externalising removes us, as therapists, from having the voice of power, and the position of expert. Is this not, in itself, a form of justice and healing (as discussed in the Charter for Story-Telling in the last module)?
    I would also like to comment on Handy Hint #2 from Externalising – commonly asked questions, “Try to remember that externalising the problem is just the start. The next steps involve richly describing the alternative story”. Personally, this is my key concern relating to externalising, that we see only two steps: step one – externalise; step two – explore additional stories. While the shifting from internal problem to external problem is certainly a beneficial step, my primary goal is to transcend the idea of ‘problem’ altogether. Externalising can offer excellent tools for this if we follow it through to what I see as step three – realise ‘problem’ as story.
    Once we invite ourselves to consider that the idea of ‘problem’ is, itself, a story, we can move beyond the frustration and potential powerlessness of there being a problem at all. While I do not advocate re-internalising an externalised construct, I do support realising that the construction itself is an internal process, and we, therefore, have the power to change it, or even transcend it.
    To put this into context, I can begin to shift from
    Step one: I am a problemed person
    Step two: There is a problem
    Step three: I created an image of a problem, the power is mine.
    From step three, I usually explore the problem as opportunity/gift, or the problem as illusory construct pointing to a deeper meaning and value system in our lives.
    Of course, this must be done delicately, and is only suitable for a certain set of the population, namely those viewing life from a subtle or causal construct, to use the words of Terri O’Fallon (O’Fallon, T. (2017). Concrete, Subtle, and Causal Tiers. Seattle, WA, USA: Pacific Integral.)

  11. Hello from Melbourne!

    I work in the special needs field with participants who are often limited in their vocabulary to express themselves. There is one person who has an anti-social habit of yelling very loudly and banging the wall with her fist. It is not clear what she is trying to achieve by this behaviour and though she has some language it is tightly scripted around three key phrases that she repeats over and over. The narrative therapy concept of externalising may provide a way of talking about this behaviour, which has caused her to become socially isolated and no longer invited on many of the programs, without making her feel is simply “wrong”. To understand how this behaviour is benefitting her seems i.e. her position seems an imperative first step in order to work out how to use alternative means to achieve what she wants. With the use of the suggested questions in the powerpoint and the concept of the chart, in which success and failure can be plotted without dismay at some questions falling flat, hopefully there will be progress made in gaining a more full understanding of the woman’s unmet needs and more support to lead to an expansion of her emotional vocabulary.

  12. I feel like this chapter feels very practical and applicable. I am ready to start applying externalization with clients now. Thank you!

  13. I guess I was struck most in this section about how very similar the construct of externalisation is to qualitative research and methods, which I have studies and worked with for many years. I guess that I was wondering how narrative therapy might go beyond these ideas, or differ, but actually it seems to me that the client in these contexts becomes the narrative analyst. I was also struck by the development of narrative therapy from social justice backgrounds, and just started to become intrigued by the discussion of ethical principles, and the real challenge of developing an approach that is inspired by human rights, and the upshot challenges of cultural sensitivity, which I am keen to pursue.

  14. Pedro (Spanish) writing from Australia (Darwin) and Spain (The Canary Islands: Lanzarote). I was living in Darwin until recently and I had to come back to Spain.

    Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why?

    Everything caught my attention but specifically the story of Sugar and how conversations and externalising can be a powerful tool to teach others and let others speak about their worries, concerns and wishes to know, understand and learn.

    What sort of problems could  be externalised in your context?

    I think that I would like to know a little bit more about conversations, externalising and Schizophrenia, this is the field where I currently working and also AOD. I see different connections between both aspects and I consider that a deep research on this could be amazing for me.

    What difference might this make?

    A lot of difference, first let the clients speak about what they think about the illness, what the heard and know about it, and how they are living their own stories, that sometimes, as professional, we forget to consider.

  15. Hi, Astrid here from Amsterdam.
    What stood out for me in this chapter in general terms is that I have always believed that the Gestalt based training I have received was contra to Narrative. And it so is not! It took me a moment to redefine that in my head.
    What I enjoyed most was listening to and watching Mark; if only he could talk us through the whole course 🙂 This lively discourse of all the stages during map 1 and his visual example of it were helpful to me to remain superengaged and keen to try for myself.

  16. The article “Commonly asked questions” stood out to me the most because it answered important questions and clarified possible confusions with this practice. I appreciate mentioning postructuralism and how not only problems but also ‘strengths’ can be externalized. In my context, all problems that I can think of can be externalized. I tend to listen for internalized statements such as for example, I am depressed, or I am worthless person, and so on. Externalizing makes a difference in many ways some of which include but are not limited to experiencing sense of relief and separation from the problem, increased understanding about the operations of the problem on their lives, experiencing less self-blame and judgment, increased sense of hope that they can do something about their problems, seeing oneself and relationships in a new way, becoming aware of skills and knowledges that are relevant in addressing the problem and so on. I really appreciate this practice because as a therapist I am taking a political stance against pathologizing people and reproducing the dominant cultural discourse that includes normative ideas which are often oppressive and have negative effects on people’s lives.

  17. I found the video about Joey really helpful and very interesting. I work in schools in the UK – I’m from Essex in the south-east.
    I found the chart a good tool to use, thank you. When I met with a 7yr old boy this afternoon he found making a lego model during our conversation ended up representing what he called his “Bird’s Eye View” of the problem and he used a model I had made to support his “BEV” in exploring ….to be continued ….

  18. I found this chapter a really affirming one. I have been using externalisation with my children since they were little. It gave them space to address and change their behaviours without feeling shamed, I can see how this works in a therapeutic context. I loved the idea of externalising diabetes as Sugar and like another contributor mentioned above, can see how using a similar method with anxiety etc could be very powerful. The thing that stood out to me was the power of giving people questions to ask, as a way to help them find their voices. Such a wonderful technique.

  19. 1. The resource that stood out for me the most is this chapter, is that of externalisation itself. Externalising in a way, to me, is an extension of reframing. This epiphany moment for myself, opened doors within. Not only for those I counsel, but also, and most importantly…for m own journey. Overall though, ‘the problem isn’t the person’ rules supreme as the outstanding resource…why…because it promotes change without the weight of external locus of control.
    2. Any thing can be externalised. This links in with meta cognition skills and separation from physical reality (meditation). I appreciated the information on taking responsibility for care in externalising certain issues from Mark.
    3. Having a solid grasp on the skills of externalisation, from my context in the role I am engaged in, potentially can (and will) make all the difference. Not only does it add to rapport through showing care and interest, but actually gets people ‘out of their own heads’ and stop owning that which needs not to be carried, and most importantly, allow room for self chosen growth leading to quality change.
    Michael must have been a very special man.

  20. Gerry from Victoria.

    This module reminded me of some meditative practices that I have learnt over the years, particularly practices that deal with that loud voice of shame and worthlessness.
    I really value this module, though I think it will take some practice and adaption to do well within my work setting. I like that it is so fluid and the examples given such as the Sugar story that was culturally intelligent and Marks story of Joey show how it will work in different contexts, the charting is a great tool for helping to solidify the concepts in my mind and gives me more ideas about the various ways a conversation may go. Linking it with histories and culture I believe will be helpful to peoples understanding how pervasive some ways of thinking are arrived at and taken on as normal.
    In the context of my work, I believe the difference I will see with young people is the opportunity to externalise rather than internalise the problem and the chance to see ways of challenging problematic behaviors in a way that values themselves rather than being in a perpetual loop.

  21. I particularly like the statement of position map/ the chart of maping the problem. I tend to use many visuals when I conceptualize my work with clients, and this is a wonderful tool. I think it is an organic way to reach the values and preferred ways of being, especially for people who may not be able to name what is important to them or how the problems is perhaps influencing their behaviours, choices in ways that are not congruent with their values systems, preferred stories etc. This is going to be very helpful for me in tracking my exploration of the problem and following the client. The format of the video and interactive sheets is an excellent approach to online learning, thank you.

    • Hello from Ontario! I liked the detailed questions that came out of Mark Hayward’s presentation. I appreciate the exact wording of how to complete an ‘externalizing conversation’ with a client. I can really appreciate the question of are you in favour or against the problem- which is something I have never thought about before. We make assumptions that people are against the problems that come up in their lives without asking the person about their position on it. This is key, as Hayward refers to, in being able to tease out what it is like to live with the problem they are having. It allows for ownership in a way I have never seen before.

  22. As i was reading the material and watching the videos, I got a lot of clarity, especially with regard to dealing with such cases where there may be a need to take responsibility of the actions. One thing I was worried about was what if the person’s position on the problem is such that they feel they need it to stay with them. I understand that we would still then be curious and try to find out what values these are coming out of and why they feel the need to let the problem remain. I was wondering about how we would then proceed with the conversation?

  23. Stephanie from Brisbane Australia

    I have really enjoyed exploring these resources on externalising. I think this is such a useful concept, particularly for engaging with populations experiencing isolation, stigmatisation and disempowerment.

  24. Hi, I am Debbie from South Australia, currently on placement and finishing my Master of Counselling Practice. My placement includes a High school and through the Uni practice also see people of all ages.

    Studying “Narrative Therapy” as a subject 3 years ago gained my interest and desire to work with this modality. I now am using this online course as a refresher to give me confidence to develop on my placement while continuing to learn and grow new skills.
    Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why?
    The black dog video made sense to me of how hard it is when depression takes over. I am keen to share this with a teenage client I currently have who is struggling for words to describe their depression or explain it to their family.
    I am still struggling with mapping, but Mark Hayward’s simple example showed me the importance of really defining the character, how conversations go up and down. To clarify it’s position by the client takes time and needs to be clear before they will be able to get to their values.

    What sort of problems could be externalised in your context?
    Personally, as a beginner counsellor, my fear (problem) of competence while developing new skills can trigger a fall back to externalise “I am dumb”. I have held this since childhood struggling at school.

    What difference might this make?
    This will allow me to less catastrophise or get caught up in my fear and to be gentler and kinder to myself. To put a more realistic perspective to the trials of learning new skills.

  25. Hello all;

    It’s Shane from British Columbia Canada. I find the process of guiding a client to the externalization of an issue a unique and attractive skill. As such, I found the video by Mark Hayward, and the use of the Statement of Position Map to be a useful exercise for understanding how charting the client’s issue(s), values, experiences and effects can all be worked together to help a client assess incongruences. While my comprehension of this tool is just beginning to develop I still find it a useful lens to use when talking with people (and occasionally to myself) about their own (my) story.

    I look forward to working through the remainder of the program material with all of you.



  26. Hi all I am Ann from Ireland and I am currently trying to navigate the site. I am delighted to be part of this course and look forward to communicating with people from all over the world and learning from people with more knowledge in this area. I came across Narrative Practice while training as a mentor for parents of young people in the criminal justice system. I was really interested in learning more and I am excited about the course. Thank you for creating this course at the Dulwich Centre.

  27. Hi,

    I’m from the Sunshine Coast, Australia. I’m currently studying social work at university.

    I found the article on the FAQs of Externalising interesting, specifically the inclusion of externalising positive traits. I had never thought that even the internalisation of positive characteristics can be a thin way of examination. I can imagine when they are seen as separate from oneself, almost like resources that can be accessed, they become almost more useful because instead of it being a compulsion, it is a choice to use this skill.

    Nonetheless, the externalisation of problems is also fascinating. This separation from identity would be extremely empowering. Even studying a few mental health courses at university lately they have demonstrated how a medical diagnosis can become the identity of the individual and even mould that person’s behaviour to more closely fit that diagnosis. Once that person is labelled and their identity is founded on this problem it is difficult for someone to realise they are capable of acting a different way. When someone expects you to act in a certain way, you will. Externalisation is much needed in the mental health area.

  28. I currently work as a Crisis Nurse within an NHS Child and Adolescent Response Team in South London.
    I previously been involved in Narrative Family Therapy as an outsider witness in the past.
    I would like to develop my and the teams skills in using a Narrative approach in engaging young people who are in Crisis due to their mental and emotional issues. Examples of externalising conversations with young people in crisis would be really helpful.

  29. Hi all, this is Alireza from Tehran, Iran.
    As I learned externalizing problems is the basic technique and concept which help both the counselor and the person who comes to consult with us to set a goal to achieve, in a cooperative way. “Introducing Sugar” was the most attractive article which I have read twice. The structure of the article which is articulated as a scenario inspired me a lot to re-form it about any other problems. For example, addiction in my society is a kind of problem internalized for many persons and of course many families that can be personified across externalizing methods. But in some contexts, I think, it must assume as a multi-factorial phenomenon and it must have various faces to be introduced.

  30. I particularly enjoyed the “Externalizing-Commonly Asked Questions”. This article provided a very approachable structure for diving into how narrative therapy works in practice – not just in theory. Similar to the “Introducing Sugar” article, the question that one may think of as they finally start to practice, were presented to us, and answered in depth. This allowed me to think about questions, and understand solutions and the advice of an expert before putting this practice into action. It got me thinking about how I will personally integrate this into my practice, and what it will look like.

    Problems that could be externalized in my context: depression, anxiety, worthlessness, harsh judgement, fear of failure, impostor syndrome.

    Externalization of these afflictions is so powerful because separating yourself from any one of these symptoms, or beliefs, is the first step to taking back your power. We know that it is belief in control, not control, that protects individuals from depression and victimization. The practice of externalizing reinforces the belief in control and helps to reinforce this constructive way of thinking.

  31. Greetings from Alkmaar, The Netherlands

    I enjoyed this lesson and particularly related to the WHO video.
    Looking back I’ve spontaneously used the ‘externalization’ approach with fear of insomnia in my mid 20s, it was effective and externalization, to me, brings with it a sense of freedom, playfulness and creativity. In short, it takes me from a place of feeling stuck and fearful to seeing possibilities again.

    I wonder to what extent ‘positive’ traits are externalized in narrative therapy? Is externalizing something a strategic choice for getting the best outcome for solving a problem or is it a standard approach because narrative therapy is based on the view that our identity is constructed by personal/cultural/collective narratives ?

    I work in the field of restorative justice and I’m interested in applying narrative approaches to restorative interventions. I look forward to learn more.

    Greetings, Femke
    (My first attempt to leave a comment failed so I’m trying a second time)

  32. I am really enjoying the humble approach of narrative therapy, particularly in regards to relating to people of diverse backgrounds. The “introducing sugar” reading was such a great use of externalising to engage with a target group that have not related to health information presented in other formats.

  33. Hi, My name is Jennifer!

    After reading this I believe externalizing is not only a key concept for Narrative Therapy, but also for daily living. If people weren’t as judgmental and didn’t objectify people seeing them purely as their problems life would be a whole lot kinder.
    It’s important to take a step back when you believe you know the answer about someone.
    I also think I should attempt to not only use the concept of externalizing with clients and my relationships, but should also attempt using it for myself.

  34. Kitchener, ON Canada
    I found the WHO video very helpful. The visualization of the dog really seems to capture the spoken description. The visual magnified the spoken word. Thank you!

  35. I really loved the WHO video and the statement of position worksheet for mapping. In my experience externalizing can be done relatively easy but I think this lesson has made the point that there is a level of shallowness that can be done (as a therapist trying to externalize) that limits the depth of the therapeutic activity that can easily follow.

  36. Amandine Rozet from Turkey

    Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why?

    I really appreciated the world health organization short film. I always understand and learn more quiclky with images. I could understand the concept of externalization “intellectually” but now I understand it with all my mind.

    What sort of problems could be externalised in your context?
    Teenagers feel that they are “unfit” to their world (school and parents) and this is highly emotionnal for them. By externalizing the problem, it is easier to define it and to remedy to it.

    What difference might this make?
    Externalizing allows me to deeply understand the problem and its issues instead of going too quiclky to the solution (I’m a coach and “solution-oriented”). The person will feel more listened I believe and the therapy will be more efficient.

  37. Hi, Nicola here from Perth, Western Australia.

    Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why?
    I really liked the way Mark charted his externalising conversation. He noted that he spent more time on the earlier steps of externalising and that these were necessary before step 4 (the ‘values’) could be truly addressed.

    What sort of problems could be externalised in your context?
    As an audiologist I tend to work with specific problems (for example hearing loss, tinnitus, hyperacusis and misophonia) but Auditory Processing Disorder is my speciality. Children are brought to my clinic for a range of reasons but ‘poor listening behaviour’ is usually one of them and some kind of label is usually mentioned e.g. a parent may say ‘I was the same when I was a kid and I always thought I was stupid and I don’t want that label for my child’ or ‘we’re not sure if he is autistic or a bit deaf or he has an Auditory Processing Disorder’ or ‘we’re not sure if he’s just naughty or he really has a problem’ and so on. In fact, one of the difficulties of working in Auditory Processing is that has been stigmatised to some degree by various people because we’re working with parents who are occasionally accused of ‘label shopping’ for their children. I am deeply keen to find skillful ways of having these conversations with parents and children in ways that externalise the problem from the child, and conversations with children where they can label the problem themselves and de-centre the problem from themselves.

    What difference might this make? I think for many of the children I see, they undergo multiple assessments and understand there is a problem of some kind and are at very high risk of internalising it. I always check with parents if they’d like me to discuss test results with the child involved or with the child in the waiting room, and most choose to have the child involved. I think it is critically important that I find ways of explaining test results that externalise the problem from the child and give the parents and very importantly the child some space from the problem.

  38. This is Paddy Farr again from Eugene Oregon USA. Here are some thoughts. As I began reading the explanation of externalizations in the FAQ, I made the prima facile connection to psychodynamic externalization as a defensive mechanism wherein problems are posited to occur from outside the self. In Vaillant’s view, this is a more adaptive defense but still beneath higher defenses such as sublimation. In psychodynamic work, this can be used as a phase of ego building wherein the individual becomes more capable of adapting to conflicts. However, this view has always struck me as potentially victim blaming, and as I worked on through the chapter, I found the notion of externalization more and more closely aligned with my own analytic work. For me, in both Clinical work and personal therapy, the externalization of trauma and oppression from internal conflicts has provided a means for pointing out the impetus of the problem as beyond and outside the mind. I was doubly affirmed as I listened to Mark Hayward describe the importance of focusing on responsibility, or what I have always thought of as accountability, as different and distinct from the externalization. Both are possible and necessary within clinical work: the problem is the problem and yet the person has the capacity to transform.

  39. The Introduction of Sugar is a great example of how to use externalization within group work and how to reduce if not end with feelings such as blame or shame. I did really enjoy the video in which the depression is represented by a black dog and I think it creates a pathway on fighting stigma introducing the idea of separating people from their problems (“The person is not the problem, the problem is the problem”).

    Working within the mental heath services
    I feel there is so much work to do within the field of personality disorders. Starting to externalise problems and behaviours could bring new approaches and new ideas in the way we engage with people.

  40. I’m writing from sydney, australia. I can see the value in using these externalising conversations to reduce shame, and therefore open up the use of the imagination in finding a solution and understanding. I work with women with drug and alcohol issues and they experience a lot of shame which can make it hard to see solutions. Thanks for a fantastic course!

  41. Hello ,

    I found this chapter very interesting. Externalising problem is something we often think about doing but may not necessarily understand the reasoning behind or know how to do it effectively. The chapter, especially the video delivered by Mark Hayward offered an effective and descriptive explanation of this and allow me to apply them to my current and future practices.

  42. I’ve noticed with adolescents in particular, a tendency to talk about “my depression” and “my anxiety” as if they were talking about inherent traits they possess that make them special. It becomes their identity, and they tend to seek out others who also take a diagnosis on as part of their identity. It’s almost second nature to externalize problems with younger children because it’s necessary to use metaphors, stories, and play in therapy. I really found all of the examples given quite useful, and I love how externalizing problems can naturally reduce shame.

  43. This section made me think about how often young people introduce their problem to me using medicalised or psychology language. “I have anxiety” is probably one of the most common things that young people tell me in our first meeting. Usually the young person has been told this or has done their own research and is trying to map their own experiences onto this medicalised or professional model. From my experience with young people, this process alone seems to cause helplessness and sucks any sense of agency the young person has over these experiences.

    These resources, particularly Sugar, really made me reflect on the ownership of language and the role that I as a therapist play in providing a platform where the young person’s language takes a primary position. As I think about this, I’m wondering about how this matches up with messages the young person receives from other players. For example, schooling and education sometimes encourages a passive position to learning and creating understanding. Depending on how strong these messages are in the young person life might determine how readily they engage in the ownership of the language we use.

    • I’ve noticed with adolescents in particular, a tendency to talk about “my depression” and “my anxiety” as if they were talking about inherent traits they possess that make them special. It becomes their identity, and they tend to seek out others who also take a diagnosis on as part of their identity. It’s almost second nature to externalize problems with younger children because it’s necessary to use metaphors, stories, and play in therapy. I really found all of the examples given quite useful, and I love how externalizing problems can naturally reduce shame.

  44. Hello! I’m writing from the Philippines

    I found the video with Mark extremely helpful. The way the questions are phrased to enable us to go through the Statement of Position map, the sample responses to a client’s narration — all these were good concrete examples on how I might use externalizing when talking to others.

    It also struck me how open and non-judgmental we must be when facing and talking to the person with a problem. This attitude is a must to be able to do the statement of position map well.

    • The easily stated summary of externalizing the problem by giving it a particular look/feel/texture/color/shape is very visual. It again reinforces the idea that putting a name to, or creating some kind of visual glyph (eg the black dog) externalizes and acknowledges the problem without invalidating it in anyway at all. When looking at a problem, people mostly see the person – in a sensory manner (sight) and so by externalizing the problem, one creates a new visual space for IT to operate in. By giving the problem a ‘look’, the person can more easily respond to the problem in the third person and thereby gain a more objective view to a mostly subjective issue. This externalization can provide a more intimate position on the problem. Even using the + or the – symbol as a drawn visual aid and spider diagraming the positives and negatives can nudge further understanding of their position. Should the person draw/paint their own version of the problem, it belongs to them and this artistry prevents the therapist from being the primary author/artist of the problem. Even the use of the chart by the person together with the therapist provides a readable diagram for both parties. Colors can represent notions/emotions very effectively.
      Cheryl Penn, Durban – South Africa

  45. Loved the Sugar illustration. This could equally be used to work with depression or anxiety. Found it judgemental and empathic and externalising allowed the separation of the person and the problem. Very powerful.

    • I have just finished reading the article on “Sugar”, which was written so well I could imagine Sugar standing in front of the group, growing stronger, diminishing, and talking in language that the people could understand and relate to. She offered a way to talk about the problem of diabetes that allowed her audience to see it as that–a problem that exists but also that there are other ways to think and talk about the problem.

  46. What strikes me is how inherently non-judgemental and compassionate this approach/technique of externalising the problem is. The clip with Mark Hayward was helpful for me in understanding how this happens. I would like to say that without embodying non-judgement/acceptance/unconditional positive regard (which no study can teach), though, the technique (and all techniques) would be rendered unhelpful and meaningless.. Perhaps there’s room to be open about one’s judgements/reactions in a sensitive, respectful, therapeutically helpful way within this approach? I no doubt will learn about that! Robert – Gold Coast, Qld, Australia.

  47. The Sugar story was amazing. What an insightful way to set up a safe environment for people to ask questions and gain an understanding of diabetes. I also loved the Balck Dog video.This was a great visual aid to support an understaning of externalising a problem.
    I found it really helpful to work through the transcript of mark’s conversation with Joey, particularly the way Mark dropped back a level when Joey was not yet able to indicate his position. I’m from Whangarei in New Zealand

  48. Hola/ Hello Friends Of DC!

    Well, my coments about this Map on externalizing conversations are: It’s great to see that there are some practices that allowe people to take distance from what they call their problems, specially when it’s been soo long since they have been strugguling with them.

    At the same time I Could say that the efects of externalizing are great! Because they provide a point where to ”pull” to an other places: richer stories!

    In an other book I read that the questions we make thru externalizing conversatinos are called ”relative influence questions” because they try to find what are or were the effects of the problem, what are the present of the problem, and where do we want to go regarding the problem.

    Also a very good point I can find here, it’s also the chances we have to separate ”Qualityes” and to find out how they were created.

    Thank you Dulwich Center

  49. I found the role play of ‘sugar’ very enlightening and something that can be used in many situations. It takes the focus of the individual to see the problem as a live entity.

    This could work well in OCD particularly pure O.

    Having OCD as a separate entity from themselves may invite them to recognise the problem is not them.

    The mapping of conversation was also insightful to enable me to expand conversation. Also to be mindful of the questions I am asking clients that they may not be ready for, it allows me the opportunity to create the space where clients can reflect and gain their own insight.

    It was very much a relief to know that within narrative practice, perpetrators of violence in whatever form are given the space to take responsibility for their actions and its impact.

  50. Hello, I am Kirsten, writing from Melbourne Australia. The resource that most struck me was Aunty Barbara Wingard’s story ‘Introducing Sugar.’ There was a playfulness to the interaction she had with the community of Aboriginal people, and I had a sense of why people engage so well with characters. It is fun – it connects us with our long history as storytellers. I also enjoyed Mark Hayward’s presentation – especially the delight he took in figuring out which questions to ask next.

    In my context, as a mental health practitioner, the problems that could be externalised are the problems that people might start out calling ‘low self-esteem’ or ‘depression’ or ‘anxiety.’

    I think it would make a difference to rename and characterise these problems, because many people hold a view that their problems are part of them. Because of this, change seems like an impossible task. Having space between the person and the problem would help folks to understand why the problem is a problem, what supports and lessens it, and what steps could be taken according to someone’s own position and values.

  51. I was struck by Mark Hayward’s conversation with Joey. It was interesting to see how he worked with Joey to establish his position about the bullying as it was not easy for Joey to find the words. A lot of time was spent on establishing a common understanding of what the bullying looked like. It felt important for Joey to have his say about this.

    I found his discussion about balancing the persons responsibility and not defining the person by the problem thought provoking. At work, I have found being able to separate the person from the problem to be very helpful in particular with children who often feel powerless in situations.

  52. Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why? The black dog video was really helpful in the way it was gentle in explanation. The narrator described a range of situations and progressions of depression, while consistently externalising it as something that was with him, rather than of him.

    What sort of problems could be externalised in your context? As a practitioner in a high school, a range of issues can be externalised such as problematic behaviours, negative self-perception in relation to achievement, and of course mental health issues.

    What difference might this make? I have already found that externalising student achievement and separating it from the self is helpful to students, who then produce much better reflective essays and identify ways to improve their work, as opposed to seeing themselves as incapable, or “a C student”…

  53. Hi there!

    My attention was caught especially by the Black dog video and the Sugar story. It visualised in a very clear and persuading manner what it means to externalise a problem. I also liked the idea of finding an experience-near description of the problem as I can see how it leaves ownership with and acknowledges the specific experience of the person. I’m thankful for the questions given as examples to further help the person separate themselves from the problem. However, I am wondering how people with traumatic experiences are able to work with the questions and self-reflect in such a way about their experiences or themselves. What other more playful and less cognitive methods could be helpful to externalise problems?

    What sort of problems could be externalised in your context?
    In my context, the problems of social, political and economic exclusion and discrimination could be externalised. I am worried though that seeing the context might not ease the hardship as the context is unlikely to change. So I am curious about the next step. And I am also wondering if I would use same techniques if I work with groups rather than individuals.

  54. My name’s Jen – I’m a mental health clinician in a State forensic mental health team working with Aboriginal Australian kids who are in and out of custodial care. My clients all have significant levels of complex developmental trauma and have been viewed as ‘problems’ their entire lives. My clients have also experienced high levels of institutionalisation, which has served to deeply internalise messages of themselves as only their offending behaviour.
    Externalising is both crucial and problematic in this professional context. As Mark noted in his example of Joey, externalisation must be carefully used in discussions about problem behaviours that harm self or others. It is a difficult line to walk in utilising externalisation to challenge deeply entrenched and internalised narratives about themselves (“I’m fucking useless, everyone says so”) while also supporting the kids to take ownership of the consequences of offending behaviour in a way that prompts motivation for change.
    I particularly found steps 3 and 4 of the slideshow interesting and something I want to incorporate into my work more – supporting clients to examine their views/values around problems in their lives as a motivator for change. I like the focus on clients as experts and authors of their lives, including where they want their lives to be going. For a client cohort so dependent on systems, it’s important to promote as much sense of empowerment and choice as possible!
    Looking forward to what else I will learnt throughout this course.

    • My thanks to the many contributors. My name is Sue and I work with children and families in schools in the UK I am finding this online resource encourages me to question and reflect on my practice whilst also offering support and structure to keep safe whilst experimenting/exploring.

  55. I love the concept of the experience-near description – beautifully humanistic and person-centred.

    In a school counselling context, learning difficulties could be a useful thing to externalise – a way of relieving the significant shame and self-stigma that students experience.

  56. With respect to externalizing problems rather than objectifying and oppressing people as problems, I find that these spaces are small and that openings to liberation and insight close over before a new story where the person is not the problem gets enough traction to flourish. I find that externalizing is hard in the face of oppressive systems like the mental health system where the person is always the problem. I experienced that process of externalizing when I undertook Equine assisted therapy and when I went through a Royal Commission process. But personally I always encountered back lash from the system and sustained healing has eluded me.

    • Hi Fiona, i’m interested in how systems work too, especially mental health in the UK. i am encouraged by a story Michael White tells about a social worker who went against the system in response to a child. Have you come across this? I wouldn’t have known about MW’s work with people or the Dulwich Centre and narrative therapy until a week ago when I heard through staff working with a young person diagnosed with ‘complex trauma’ sectioned in an adolescent unit. I am wondering if there are any other exceptions in the mental health system. I wouldn’t be surprised if there are some more somewhere that I don’t know about yet.

  57. Hi, my name is Glen. I live in Newcastle, Australian.
    Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why?
    The concept of charting, with the four components (if ‘components’ is accurate), roughly from my memory: 1. characterising and naming, 2. (connections, I cheated & I looked that part up) and effects of the problem, 3. (experience and) position (regarding the problem) and, 4. Values (why?) The numbering could imply a sequence though and Mark Hayward pointed out that the conversation itself mostly moves all over the place, rather than following an orderly sequence.
    Why? Because I have tried externalising a number of times and it had gone well usually but occasionally it hadn’t turned out quite as anticipated. Recently, a seven year old and his mother gave me feedback that I had “lost” them and was trying to externalising a problem as part of the conversation with them. In retrospect I had gone too fast. I had missed the component of (experience) and position completely! Mark suggested that if a person (family member) is not making sense of a position question, it is useful to revisit characterising and naming and (connections) and effects of the problem. I feel a bit embarrassed, it seems obvious now. That’s learning!
    What sort of problems could be externalised in your context?
    There are a huge number that could be seen through this lens. I ones that I am greatly looking forward to are diagnostic labels (e.g. anxiety disorder). I think the challenging part is asking questions that encourage the person seeking assistance to see themselves as expert on their experience, rather than expecting or looking to a professional (i.e. in this instance, me) so much for ‘strategies’ [or solutions / answers?].
    What difference might this make?
    My experiences, albeit limited so far, is that it brings refreshing imagination and creativity into the work. I found that people often naturally talk in metaphors and metaphors are woven into our language anyway, it provides a much more flexible and interesting way of working with people. When the work is going well, it can be exciting to help people bring out their own ideas, skills and creativity.

  58. Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why?

    I really enjoyed reading the excerpt on Sugar. I found it to be particularly interesting because of the approach taken to explain an issue through the use of characterization and externalization. By separating people from their issues by creating a character out of it, it tends to allow people space to begin a healing journey instead of falling victim to the idea that they are the illness and therefore inseparable.

    What sort of problems could be externalised in your context?
    I would say procrastination would be a good problem to be externalized for me. When I have something to do and I don’t do it, I tend to identify as someone who procrastinates. I am a procrastinator.

    What difference might this make?
    By externalizing it I would be able to see better that it is something in which I find myself doing sometimes but it is not who I am- and therefore it would be much easier to change.

  59. Writing from Italy

    Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why?

    The resource that most caught my attention was the piece by Aunty Barbara Wingard entitled “Sugar”. What struck me was that she was really paying attention to the community she was working with, and that narrative supported her to do this.

    What sort of problems could  be externalised in your context?
    I am not currently working in a therapy context, but I do work with people as a teacher. I think that in the context of education, it can be automatic to see problems as part of the student, and not even be aware of thought process. Just noticing this as a teacher is quite significant. I think the stories teachers have about those they work with impact the learning space. Noticing this tendency could be a kind of externalising. But a more practical example might engaging with problems connected to ideas about not being able to do certain things.

    What difference might this make?

    In a teaching context, drawing attention to these sorts of beliefs and making them more visible could support students to take their learning into their own hands, and to explore different ways of engaging with themselves within their learning experience.

  60. hello, I am from Rwanda,
    I am really impressed by the externalizing course, the part of commonly asked questions helped me to understand what externalizing is, and i found that creating a space between one’s client and the problem and naming the externalized problem is a very powerful tool, it makes the client realize that he/she is a valuable person and give him/her strengths to be in position of dealing with the problem and its influence on others.
    The video of the black dog was like a case study of how depression could be externalized, and how the externalized conversations can facilitate the therapy. It made me realize that one can’t deal with an internalized problem.
    This is a new tool for me,so, i am going to try it and i am sure it will help.
    Thank you

  61. The presentation by Mark Hayward and the article by Barbara Wingard really helped to ground some of the externalising principles in practice, and enabled me to think in tangible terms about how I might incorporate a Narrative approach into my conversations. Mark and the people that wrote the FAQs also addressed the issue of not losing sight of responsibility for violent and abusive behaviour within Narrative practice, which is something I had been wondering about.

    More generally, this unit got me thinking about all of the expertise held by the young people I work with that often gets overlooked or overridden. In particular, many young people I work with have PTSD diagnoses but this ‘experience distant’ description of their distress often can be confusing and lack meaning for them, and it puts the onus on professionals to explain and ‘treat’ the issues they are facing. I am curious about what more ‘experience near’ descriptions of their problems might look like and am keen to try and help to open up space for these and consult with them as experts around this.

  62. Hi I’m Camille from Qld, Australia.

    I found the Statement of Position Map to be really novel and useful. I think it will help me see what areas to touch on and build on and guide me as to where to aim. I like the hierarchical nature of it so that you know where to drop down to if a client is struggling to be clear on a certain area. The Position Map will help me clarify the directions I’m going in during a session and where the client is at.

    Externalising is a useful tool. I think it has to be done well so that the person is able to step outside of the problem and not be limited or defined by the problem but still take responsibility for their actions.

  63. I am Divya from India. I found all the material on externalising not only useful but very well laid out. Starting with describing Externalisation, the video gives a very clear and crisp understanding about what externalisation is all about. This is followed by the FAQs which clarify the parts which may not yet be clear. I found the question and response on externalising abusive behaviours particularly useful. The video on depression/ black dog was a fantastic representation of how externalisation works. One of the issues that I have faced while counselling clients is how many people internalise the problem then direct so much anger and resentment towards themselves that they find it difficult to move forward. Externalisation provides a clear structure for separating the person from the problem thus preventing the need for the person to fight with oneself.

    The description of externalisation by Mark Hayward was very useful, especially when it comes to using this map in actual counselling sessions. The differentiation of the four phases by Mark, gives practical clarity on how the externalisation could be used. I have been able to use it with a client who has been having difficulty moving on after a relationship breakup. the use of externalisation has made it possible for the client to see himself as a wholesome and capable person. who is separate from the strong feelings of disappointment, sadness and anger.

  64. I loved this chapter and it provided so much to think about. I liked the idea not limiting Externalizing metaphors to “war or battles”, but keeping it open to a variety of other metaphors such as : “living with or in relationship with”, etc.

    My first concern about the concept of externalizing is that sometimes problems have had such a severe impact on a person (Trauma, PTSD), that it is an intrinsic part of how the person has been wounded. What happens in such examples.

    Secondly, I am wondering what happens when a person has limited insight into problems – “What is
    outside in or What is inside out?”

    • Apologies: I am writing from NY, NY (USA)

  65. I feel comfortable with the concept and purpose of externalising. I currently commonly do work with people to externalise problems/experiences, I recognise people’s expertise in their problems/experiences and I locate problems/experiences within people’s values.
    I know I work best when I have a structure or framework to follow. They help me to stay “on track” and ensure I’m not missing key points when I’m working with people. The position map provides this structure and is readily understandable – though using it well will take some practice. Mark’s skill and experience made it look too easy!
    Thank you for the questions and tools (e.g. drawing) described in the powerpoint, they will help me practice and slowly build up my own way of doing things.

  66. I am struck by the potential of narrative practice and externalizing to relocate the problem in its social context and to create space to recognize and unpack internalized oppression. At the same time, I appreciate the emphasis on understanding the person’s own position in relation to the problem and taking care not to define the nature of and relationship to the problem as practitioners. The statement of position map also helps me to see how narrative practice can access core beliefs that drive the stories we tell ourselves.

  67. Through my experience working with LGBTQ+ homeless youth in urban centres, externalizing has great value. In particular, I appreciated the statement of position map to chart where your conversation has gone, where it could go differently in the future, where you spent to much or too little time. Like many others before me, I too appreciated the conversation about externalizing and responsibility. In particular, I appreciate the possibility for humour/playfulness/lightness here (so long as it is appropriate/ you have therapeutic alliance that makes it okay/ etc.) for example, a person talking about their addiction as an abusive ex-girlfriend they keep running into at a party who promises that this time it will be different, a quality I found present in the Sugar story, the common questions, and in the statement of position map. I also value the capacity externalizing has for people to be the authors of their own experience of whatever problem they are living with and its ability to remove the therapist as the expert, reducing hierarchies of knowledge/expertise. I’m Cressida and I work in Toronto, Canada.

  68. I work in Wales, UK. Working with people experiencing homelessness, externalising should be a very useful tool. It is a good example of helping people to think about homelessness as being something outside of themselves and not a permanent situation due to the kind of person they are. Homelessness can engender stigmatising attitudes and presumptions in others and clients often become very negative and defensive, expecting to keep on encountering such attitudes. The journey through charted conversations can help to open up possibilities of other ways of living and starting to form aspirations and finding practical, step by step approaches to achieving an end. I found Mark Hayward’s video and resources on Maps of Narrative Practice a very useful exercise in understanding externalising in order to find the space between the person and the problem they are struggling with.

  69. I particularly enjoyed reading about how externalising involves doing small ‘p’ political work – about putting back onto culture and history what originated from culture and history. As a person who values ‘justice’ and is highly motivated to keep systemic injustices accountable, externalising provides space for people and communities to ‘breathe’ to ‘reflect’ and ‘to re-create’ and ‘re-construct’ truths which need to be more richly described and celebrated. The techniques of externalising – being grounded in a person’s own worldview, language and culture – can be learned and used by the person themselves. The potential for grassroots empowerment is limitless!

    • Very powerful words Ben, I agree, Externalising being grounded in a person’s own worldview, language and culture.
      Externalising is the clients ways of ‘Doing’ and ‘Being’.

  70. I had heard the quote the person is not the problem, the problem is the problem at a hearing voices seminar where it was used for people with a mental illness. This chapter was a very good amplification of what I had heard and I will be able to utilise this in work with people who have been sexually abused. I particularly liked how you can with this approach help empower clients by redefining the problem from e.g. depression to ‘a cloud of depression is keeping Zoe at home’ or seeing depression as the ‘black depths’. Locating the problem(s)within a cultural and historical perspective rather than within the person avoids pathologising the person. People who have been sexually abused often suffer from issues such as shame, anger, guilt and these issues can ‘poison ‘ them. The process of externalising can offer an approach that allows them to look at the issues to define them, to unpack them and move forward with their lives at their own pace and on their terms.

  71. Leanne from Qld Australia,

    I found this chapter great. Although I did have techniques in externalising, however the questions used was great to explore. I enjoyed the techniques around limiting externalisation for acts of violence.

  72. Hello, Course Community.

    My practice in Vancouver, Canada, entails being around K-12 urban teachers doing graduate work and the charged conversational realities they bring to bear, so often fraught with emotionally and physically challenging institutional lives in urban school communities. Here, narratives of diasporic communities and families, and other inter-generational, historical and colonizing narratives are marked by despairing and disrupting experiences that have been internalized deeply as “deficits” not only in the lives of families and children, but also in the lives of teachers and other care-providers.

    Narrative meaning-making hence is an important aspect of my practice where teachers often speak of “self-alienation”, “of a fatigued and incoherent vocational plot”, “of the politics of language” that governs and constructs their narrative identities, and where they have in some sense become narratively opaque to themselves.

    What I am thoroughly appreciating is how narratively and pedagogically grounded the course curriculum is so far, including the various media used, not to forget Phillipa’s introduction and closing reflections. The third chapter, takes the core concepts and experiences of the previous chapter including the NT Charter platformed on justice and rights, and proceeds to offer the “externalising” metaphor beyond its linguistic surpluses of meaning and into a viable technique and practice of narrative meaning-making.

    The video of Mark Hayward on mapping the narrative practice, his skillful and respectful use of language and other readings are brilliant! In various ways, the course/chapter experience tells me that as narrative beings we are inclined to take the various disparate events of our temporal lives, and give them coherence in time, i.e. how our past-present-future can be mediated through active interpretation and discourse into a meaningful whole. And, in this sense it also tells me that families and communities can experience deep narrative fissures in time when disruptive and colonizing tendencies take root. It tells me that I need to be vigilant of essentialist tendencies and to consider the play of power, and not externalise without due care. It tells me that I can actively “guide” the emplotment processes always respectful of the authoring agency of the conversational partners present – and that potential and imagined narrative futures are available and possible. It tells me to exercise patience and humility in my practice as I encounter stories and participate in conversations, and that deeply “internalised” plots take time to come to the light of awareness – and that I have an ethical role to play here.

    Just a few reflections of many that are inspiring me in this course.

    Thank you.

  73. Really useful thoughts about responsibility and externalising. The idea that there might be culturally acceptable modes of being and investigating that as a way of offering ourselves to take a position towards that construct feels helpful when working with people who have been caught up in perpetrating violence towards self or others.
    Working with externalisation really seems to allow a richness of description that is person centred and thus able to be witnessed and explored. The problem may literally become an object, using art or modelling, that can be seen from many perspectives and placed in context.

  74. It is so helpful to differentiate to between the parts of the problem that we can legitimately internalize (underlying legitimate needs, responsibility for consequences, etc.) and the parts of the problem that we can legitimately externalize (shame, culture of abuse, etc.). This is so incredibly helpful. Thank you!

  75. Hi, I’m writing from Paris, France.
    There were many interesting issues in this chapter. I’ll single out the part on “metaphors of combat in relation to the problem” in the FAQ part. I find the other available options very relevant (such as: revising one’s relationship with the problem, educating the problem, negotiating with the problem, organising a truce with the problem, taming the problem, undermining the problem…). Indeed, these alternative behaviours seem more efficient to me in certain circumstances.
    A similar metaphor would be swimming or diving: you don’t “fight” with the water; rather, you collaborate or play with it…

  76. Melbourne, VIC., Australia – for me the black dog video was useful. It is useful as it helps to separate and externalise the depression. As someone that has worked in MH, AOD and trauma it is often difficult to separate the diagnostic illness based on medical model with the that of the social model. It is especially difficult to separate them when research into the brain and brain images has shown certain parts of the brain are affected by these diagnostic illnesses.

    Externalising/externalisation of the problem is something we/I use when working with sex offenders. I do some work in disability forensic assessment treatments system (DFATS) in this facility I would use neutral language and separate the person from his offending behaviours. For example, I would say (not real name) “I like this Tim (person), but I am concern about the behaviour Tim engages on”. This language is normally used as a strategy to engage client in safe talk and non-sexually charged conversation. Disassociation is often used to disassociate the person from the bad behaviour.

    This learning has helped me remember some of my previous university learning and professional training.

  77. Lindy here from country Victoria. I loved Barbara Wingard’s ‘Sugar’ exercise. Playing the part herself eased participants in, as we are all accustomed to being the audience to a performance in which things can be personified and caricatured – she used a familiar means to achieve externalisation. Making diabetes into a character seemed to give people the confidence they could get to know what it is all about (relating to characters being more familiar perhaps than studying a disease) and take charge of their own relationship with ‘Sugar’.

    I love the logic of the Statement of Position map and that having named a problem and its effects, the next step is to name your position toward the problem and how it sits among other values held. All of this is a wonderfully empowering process.

    In my context, a lot of people internalise diagnoses such as borderline, bi-polar, aspergers etc, which can seem to make problems even bigger and their effects more pervasive. I can see how externalising using experience-near language could reduce problems back to what is actually happening for each individual, so they can address problems they can more clearly see for what they are.

  78. What happens when your client is unable to describe or give a name to the problem? How do we help him/her?

  79. Hello from Melbourne, Australia.

    I love the concept of narrative therapy because it is simple yet so powerful. It is not uncommon to become trapped in our internal dialogues and stories. By allowing ourselves the ability to re-authorize and challenge some of these stories, we can live our lives in a more nurturing/kind way. I was particularly interested in the way that something as subtle as allowing the client to fully describe the way their externalized problem manifests itself can be a truly empowering experience.

  80. As an educational and child psychologist in the UK I have found externalising questions to be very valuable for work with teenagers who have challenging behaviour arising from a complex mix of difficult lives and individual special educational needs. Having a chart to help visualise this is helpful.
    I also feel the black dog video will be extremely useful in terms of supporting young adults and parents to access support for depression, but also to begin to explain the narrative approach to young people.

  81. Hi, I’m writing from Tokyo, Japan.
    Practicing externalization helps me focus on the dangers of reproducing dominant cultures and power relations. Those would deprive me of the privilege of being part of another person’s journey.

    When I talk with a client whom I have come to assume is being delusional or blaming others unreasonably, I am often tempted to focus on how I can, by forming “logic-based” questions in my mind, get him/her to see “reality.” This attitude automatically creates a power relation in which the client is treated as less knowledgeable about his/her own life than the counsellor. Also, that kind of question rarely leads to a journey the client truly wants to take ownership of, since it is the counsellor who has decided the destination. On the other hand, I have found that externalizing conversations can create a safe space for the client to freely examine whether his/her beliefs benefit his/her own life and how he/she wants to proceed. I may ask, “how do you describe your relationship with that idea?” or “how does it influence your life?” As I get to hear the intimate descriptions of the client’s relationship with certain ideas or problems, I gain the privilege of being invited into the client’s life. This opens the door for both of us to embark on our collaborative work together.

  82. I have enjoyed this module of the course. I too am familiar with the concept of externalization, however, I have not had this much of a description of it. I like how externalization can help separate the individual from the problem.. like they are not the problem, the problem is the problem. I know for many clients this notion alone will mean a lot. I also like how this makes the individual an expert of that problem.

  83. One thing that I have always struggled with externalization has been the use of it, in cases of violence and abuse when working with the actor of abuse. I liked how Mark Hayward described externalizing the emotion and understanding the why, but not removing the responsibility around the behaviour that occurs. One of my biggest fears has been using externalization and having it used to create an excuse and thus remove responsibility. Rather than demonstrating that change is possible.
    Alberta, Canada

  84. Form me, as a therapist the chart was a particularly interesting resource. This, because it allows me to go back to conversations and think again and again, which I believe is a powerful tool in order to construct new meanings. In the chart, the questions about positions are very powerful; this allows entering other levels in therapeutic conversations.
    In Colombia I work in different contexts, specifically in educational and clinical environments; I think issues that could be externalized in these contexts are related to what parents and schools create around kids and their feelings, behavior, and academic results; it is very common that kids are being labeled all the time; Which means that parents, schools and the kids themselves do not have any possibilities for change. I believe that externalizing is powerful resource in these contexts, because it opens up possibilities that are being invizibilized by families and schools; It creates new doors, new ways of living for children.
    I also believe that in my country there are many contexts in which this resource would be very useful to create enviroments of new conversations between people.

  85. I really liked the presentation of “The Black Dog” visually externalising depression.This may give a pe3rson the ability to seek professional help and begin their own recovery.
    I will source this tool to show people who may be experiencing Depression.

  86. The question of how to apply the externalizing theory to my own practice is interesting; because many of my clients are gamers – LARPers, video or board gamers – this concept is already accessible to them. They already know how to pretend to be soldiers, orcs or zombies – getting them to see that a problem can be a cloak they try on and take off instead of innately part of themselves works wonderfully.
    -Emily; Austin, TX

  87. I have had an introduction to Narrative therapy and externalising conversations through my Counselling degree already. However, point 10 in the Commonly Asked Questions page made something click for me. I did not realise that externalising our good qualities was just as desirable as those of our bad. The whole externalisation process allows for greater examination of what we believe about ourselves. The same process that weakens an undesirable trait, that of examining the relationships and beliefs that have allowed it to flourish, can be used to strengthen a desirable trait. By understanding how you have come to develop this trait, it can become stronger during the times you are struggling to connect to it. Its foundations become more solid. This gave me a deeper understanding of externalisation and its power.

    • Indeed, externalising a problem can be so powerful. I can see how the externalisation method can work, in the context of play therapy as a child practitioner. The externalisation of the problem through play takes off the pressure of blame, guilt and shame and other negative emotions. It also promotes reflection and a shift of how the problem is viewed. It also allows children to be creative about dealing with the perceived issue. When children externalise their worries or emotions a sense of relief can be seen and humour. This method seems to be more effective and compassionate than pathologising children and adults equally.

      • I’m interested in the idea of externalising “good” qualities as well as “bad” ones too. I like the way it shifts the focus away from encouraging a sense of identity based on good and bad and labelling ourselves as this or that, which can be so narrowing and can encourage us to compare ourselves with others. It seems to open things up and acknowledge that we all have the potential for all kinds of thoughts, feelings, attitudes and behaviours and that we are not those things, we are the experiencer – the perceiver and actor. I can see this being helpful in my work with adolescents who have developed a strong habit of defining themselves by the mental health diagnosis they’ve been given.

      • Through my experience in training I worked with children dealing from sexual abuse trauma. With one I was amazed to see how helpful allowing her to naturally externalize through the use of toys assisted in her discussing the trauma. It removed the shame of what had happened in that it was the doll that it happened to rather than the child. I’m curious to see through my journey as a practitioner how age plays a factor in natural externalization.

  88. The concept of externalising is evident in movies, songs and social media. The ability to communicate a personal experience of something that is otherwise known as a problem reorients the audience to the person’s relationship experienced by the problem’s presence. Play therapy studies was a retraining of minimising an observer’s tendency to interpret the meaning an object or action had for a child. Instead, techniques were taught so an approach developed for the observer to come into the child’s own meaning attributed to their action or product. The Black Dog resource was a strong reminder of play therapy concepts, and the personal experience of a problem being represented by an analogy as a relationship. For example, a child represents an overpowering relationship with a dinosaur, and themselves as a toy baby. They relate actual memories and feelings, and desired scenarios with the dinosaur and baby, in ways they may not be able to describe in a conversation directly about the person and themselves.

  89. I love the story of Sugar. By externalising diabetes and dissociating the diease from the person gives a great unattached perspective for people to engage with diabetes. Wonderful story!

  90. This chapter was ver interesting. The process of externalising was well described in the variety of written and visual texts. The story Sugar resonated with me. Not just because diabetes is in my family but also because I work with Aboriginal families. I found the mode of collective questioning and then answers by Sugar very clear and useful for refining the process of externalising. At the moment I feel my questioning is a little stilted.
    I loved he black dog clip. What an excellent visual example of externalising. I am sure to share it with colleagues and students.

  91. This was a good chapter. The process of externalising is a narrative method I could put into practice more when I’m working with teenagers. I think I would need to practise and feel comfortable with some of the questioning techniques. Sugar’s story resonated with me. It was a great example of externalising in action. I also liked how it weaves the concept of shame in the information about working with Aboriginal people. I found the dialogue and questioning interesting and the reflections about the processes adopted in relation to the Aboriginal culture quite useful. The clip about the Black dog was an excellent example of externalisation. I intend to share it with my colleagues and students at school when I return from holidays

  92. I found reading through the transcript with Mark and actively charting the conversation on the statement of position map the most helpful. It really does help you gain a clearer understanding of where you are at in your conversations with your client, and perhaps where you need to spend a bit more time to build that rapport with them. I thoroughly enjoyed being able to see position and externalizing questions put into action. I had taken a Narrative Therapy course in graduate school a few years ago, before officially beginning my career as a counselor. This course is truly bringing those practices back to the forefront of my mind in how I am helping others.

    All the “problems” I can think of could be externalized in some way. The issues we are experiencing in our lives are simply types of relationships we have with issues, not something that is internal, within us. Perhaps there are issues that may require more conversation to learn an externalization that works well for the client, but it just takes understanding, patience, and curiosity to get there.

    I can see externalization making a big impact in my practices. Many clients I see struggle with ruminating on themselves as being “bad” or claiming all the fault for themselves and tacking it onto their identities. Several sessions could be spent on someone ruminating those types of thought, because they are stuck at that point – To change the problem, they much change themselves – But that is not the case because they are NOT the problem. Helping them see the problem from a different perspective, almost like an outside perspective, could assist them from getting past those thoughts of “I have to change ME” to “I need to work on my relationship with this issue.”

    As a new counselor in the field, I know I need to work on types of questions I use in my practice to make externalizing adequately useful. Since we do work in therapeutic practice, those will come with…practice 😉

  93. The resource that I found most useful in this chapter was the Statement of Position Map 1 because it gave me a framework in which to track the conversation and helped me to apply my learning in real-time. The problems that could be externalised in my work environment include confusion about whether to continue or change a uni course, failing a course, and unemployment. I think externalising could help to reduce shame, harness motivation and reconnect a person with their values.

  94. I really love the idea of externalizing, it feels very empowering, a way to give people back their dignity. The lecture was really helpful in breaking down how to apply this in a way that keeps us engaged with the ‘problem’ and finding ways to explore and manage problems, without them becoming part of our identity.

  95. Emilie from Coffs Harbour,

    Externalising conversation is one of my favorite narrative therapy technique. In my practice, I commonly work with individuals who have developed addictive behaviours. Externalising conversation can empower the clients as they create space for them to analyse and work on their relationship with their addictive behaviour/substance. I find this approach much more helpful than the use of labels, such as alcoholics or addicts, which take some form of control away from the individuals as the labels defines a part of their identity.

  96. For me it was important to see how the position of the problem is so important, it seems to be clear on this one needs to understand the characterstics and effects well. with this clear we can move into values and then open up a whole lot of other new stories.

    In my work I could be externalising shame and things / ideas that might be connected to this such as – life being wasted. Finding a position on this might allow for opening up of alternative strengths and values – Respect, relisience and strength.

  97. Thank you for another great chapter in this course.
    I thoroughly enjoyed the video from Mark Hayward and found it particularly helpful in reflecting how these techniques work in practice. I found that the chart was a helpful tool in guiding where the conversation has been and what still needs to be explored.
    I also really enjoyed the video on the black dog. I feel that it is a wonderful representation of externalising and how powerful it can be in reinforcing that ‘the person is not the problem. The problem is the problem.’

  98. Hi, writing from Cape town, south Africa. It really blessed me to re-think en re-visit externalization. I came across this in a MTh study and to hear this again after so many years just sparked everything in me. I really loved the “sugar” explanation and it unlocked the creativity in my to use so much more in different counseling sessions. The last clip regarding the maps of narrative therapy is something i am already make part of my counseling and it blessed me so much. I really to see the value of this. Bless you for sharing this with us. Because i am a pastor i can really see the value that these information and methods can have on my practice as well as preaching. Thanks

  99. Hi from Swansea, Wales, UK. I’m loving the chart to keep a log of where we have been and where we can go. Great aide memoire to give me more confidence until experience kicks in.

  100. Michael White’s statement that ‘The Person is not the problem. The problem is the problem.’ has been the most influential and memorable statement of my career. It changed my whole way of thinking and approach to working with people. It was a light bulb moment. I thought Of Course!!

    While I loved the story of Sugar, I think Mark Hayward’s presentation was the most impactful of the resources presented here. Seeing someone else share their work directly is always wonderful. Having the underlying purpose explained and the resources provided makes it feel possible that I might be able to do similar work. But even better was his discussion of the ethical concerns regarding externalisations and how he manages them. The heart of Narrative Therapy is how to work with people in the most ethical way and this is what attracts me most. It is a particularly effective and ethical way to work with people around abuse of all kinds. Fabulous.

  101. Traumatic memories can be particularly difficult to handle in a group or classroom setting so using the story analogy – the depression becomes the ‘black dog’ but he can be put on a lead, rather than following you around – will be most useful.
    I found Mark Hayward’s video and Powerpoint especially helpful. The ‘statement of position map’ helped me to ‘break down’ the problem. Characterisation is also a word that we creative writing tutors understand! However, it is this idea of getting into specifics – to give examples and also to take responsibility as well as externalising that I found very helpful.
    I liked Mark’s statement that it was ‘easier to compare two things than describe one’ – that you then see the issue in sharp relief against the other ‘thing’.
    The statement of position was important: I liked the example of the little boy who calls his temper tantrums ‘T-Rex’ and that then puts him in charge of the problem.
    I also liked Mark’s description of values as not necessarily being fixed moral positions but ‘what you hold precious in life’ – therefore your position on something always reflects your values so this then leads to questions like:
    “What is the problem stopping you from doing?” This was a revelation.
    thank you.

  102. The talk about the chart using the transcript really made it clear for me how externalising works. I am new to Narrative and have been doing some of this but not all, my clients are in long term intervention therefore I can take some of my learnings back to the same clients and continue the work. The part about responsibility and externalisation was great as I work with young people who engage in forms of antisocial behaviour and it is important that I am externalising in a way that does not remove the responsibility from the clients. I really admire the positioning of the person on the problem, and that responsibility can lie in how one experiences the problem, not letting it have control of their life. I have learn’t a lot from this chapter.

  103. Hi from cloudy England!

    The resource that feels most useful for me is Mark Hayward’s session that follows his discussion with Joey. I like the idea of plotting the conversation to have a clear picture of where the discussion has remained or could move to next. I also liked how he sensitively discussed the notion of responsibility when working with someone who has used abusive behaviours. I feel that there is such power in the idea of not defining someone by their actions (which, I guess, goes back to the idea of the ‘thin’ narrative). It allows the suggestion that there is an alternative way of being to surface, rather than offenders becoming locked into self-fulfilling patterns of behaviour.

    In my work, there are a lot of problems that could be externalised. For the young offenders with whom I work, there are often underlying social difficulties and interactional patterns that they find difficult to shift. Anxiety (often at the heart of this) could be externalised (although for these young people, they might call it a discomfort or a restlessness or a feeling like the world is crashing in). In schools, there are often negative behaviours between pupils or teachers that could also be externalised.

    Externalising appears to give people the power to be someone else, not to be the problem personified and to rediscover the ‘myself’ discussed by Michael White in the radio interview previously mentioned. I recognise that idea when someone says, “I know that was me, but I wasn’t myself”. For the young people with whom I work, their sense of ‘myself’ – their identity is confused and painful to examine. Externalising means that the shame is taken away from the discussion so that, with understanding and non-judgement, alternative values can be revived.

  104. Hi all,
    The most useful resource i enjoyed from this chapter was the story of ‘Sugar’. I was inspired by the fact that this substance sugar can do so much damage to our bodies, to the aboriginal people especially, and when it was displayed as a person called Sugar I believe clients would see how they can draw on their own wonderful strength and crush this desire. They can see how amazing their own traditions of catching fish and eating healthy can be such a wonderful strength in themselves and their community. What a wonderful narrative display of showing the aboriginal people how they can overcome this substance called sugar!!

  105. The story about sugar was amazing. I live and work in a remote indigenous community as a youth worker and I would love to do an act of similarity to this as I believe it would be so beneficial to mob living here because they would be able to identify very well with it. Taking sugar and creating an identity for it is the perfect idea.

  106. The entire way the black dog was depicted is interesting. I liked how depression is taken out and treated as a separate individual, makes it easy to identify the issue. whats more is that in many other methods to deal with depression, it’s difficult to understand what this, is as it’s not visible. By creating the image of the back dog it is easier to see and deal with it. maybe we can use the same principle, to deal with other issues.

  107. Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why?

    For me the best resource was the powerpoint presentation. It gave so many examples of how to ask externalising questions. I like having examples of the questions particularly in relation to working with narrative therapy and children.

  108. The idea of externalising can be very helpful, since it starts with distancing the person from the problem. Very often, we encounter people who let themselves be defined by a mental illness, which very often is self-diagnosed. I have encountered individuals who define themselves and their choices by a traumatic event that happened in their lives years ago, and everything they do or do not do, they put the blame on that traumatic event. Although a traumatic event can have shattering consequences in regards to a personality, Narrative Exposure Therapy allows individuals to take some distance from the said event. Also this therapy helps them realise who they want to be, and allows them to find better ways in coping and becoming their “best” selves.

    E. Becker from Europe

  109. Hi all, this is Lucia from Madrid, Spain. The idea of externalizing is awesome so people get some distance from the problem and really feel that THEY are NOT the problem, the problem is the problem (awesome statement, I’ll begin to use it!). I really connected with the Sugar story, it really touched me. The black dog called depression video is incredible. The first time I saw it, it caught me in a really “tender” day and, up to the middle, I found myself with tears in may eyes and finally celebrating the success of the character. Amazing! And Mark’s video, well, he is an incredible communicator so it gets things clear. Learned so much with chapter, thanks!!

  110. Externalising is a powerful tool that enables people to gain distance from their problems. This assists to diminish the direct influence of the problems, giving space to review and observe situations without judgement. It assists to avoid the identity trap of feeling defined by ‘insurmountable’ problems. Therefore the concept “The person is not the problem, the problem is the problem“ allows the problem to be scrutinised from a safer proximity. This can lessen the direct effects of the problem and lead to more options. Externalising also allows the room to explore preferred stories, which can help fortify identity in the face of problems.
    Externalising has been useful for me in navigating my personal and professional experience. Through building my own resilience, I have also been able to assist others in my care, and it offers me a ‘periscope’ that allows me to view and celebrate the bigger picture as a tangled narrative of shared and diverse stories and journeys, and strengthens the narratives shared within the community context. In the broader context a problematic dominant story can compound social problems. Through my work with vulnerable people, I have seen first- hand how social services such as police, legal practitioners, doctors, nurses, psychologists often lean towards the attitude that ”it is them that have the problems not us.” This appears to create dislocated interventions that aggravate and compound social problems. The Narrative approach reframes of problems as separate to people, definitely not a bunch of ‘uglies’ hosted by the disadvantaged to be tackled with gloves on at a safe distance. This is a great human leveller in which the ethos of equality can operate more freely, and we can share more concerns as a community.

  111. Whilst I really enjoyed learning about the Statement of Position map and having a hands on example of keeping on track and moving a session through a process of the 4 different levels , I can’t help going back to the Black Dog video. I am obviuolsy a visual learner (initially an art teacher by trade), and a dog lover. The manner in which the dog morphs into different forms to impact on so many parts of the characters life, shadow, mirror image, glassess, etc. Amazing. A great example of how these strongs feelings can morph and expand to the status of hijacking. Just loved the use of the dog to demonstrate externalisation thanks for including this.

    I will definately use this video link with my clients as an example of how the feeling of depression can be visualised and considered. having a visual tool is avaiable is just great.

  112. Hi all, this is Marcia from Sydney.
    I love this Module about Externalising as I have been already using with clients and I can see how powerful tool this is. Clients even change their body language and we start separating them from the problem and I also find that creating a dialog between the external problem and client can also bring significant outcomes during sessions. Also in this module I found very interesting the Statement Position Map1 and I would like to explore more about it.

  113. Hello once again, myself Sunaina (Shillong, India) in relation to video on “I had a black Dog and his name was Depression”. It is very clear to understand about “externalizing the problem”. Where the black dog “depression” was the problem which kept following the master where ever he went to the point that it became huge and overtaking the master.

    This video very creatively has shown the impact of problem can have on people to the point that they are afraid of themselves because they are so very weak. Having no more control on themselves thereby making them to believe that it is the end of their life. How true it is with us humans when problem overtakes us we feel down to the point of being trampled by it. With no hope for life and future.

    But thanks to externalizing the problem where we look at the problem separate from the person and thereby work accordingly. Through doing “right things” taking care of ourselves and “talking to right people” who will journey with us and help us through the problem.

  114. I found the session on mapping extremely informative and I am keen to read more about it. The position map is an effective tool to identify where the problem connects in the context of a person’s life and the effects it has. Although a little tricky to get the hang of, I feel with practice and further study mapping will be an invaluable tool.

    • Alan,
      I would highly recommend the book: Maps of Narrative Practice, Michael White. It is a wonderful read and tool to use with clients.


  115. Hello All, Michael from Adelaide here.

    I found this lesson on externalizing very interesting. The idea that,’the person is not the problem, the problem is the problem”, I think would be extremely useful in a clinical setting. Problems do tend to ‘take over’ people’s lives and identities, and creating space between the self and the problem, I think, would be very relieving for people.

    I think the idea of externalizing the ‘good’ things is also quite interesting. I never would’ve thought of doing that, but it may be helpful and useful to do so. By externalizing the ‘good’ things, it may give he person more power over them and therefore more control over their lives.

    I thought the idea of the ‘black dog’ and of Sugar (within the indigenous community) was extremely useful also. I think if therapists use externalizing ideas and humour with clients (in order to not be overwhelmed by the clients problems), then that may be helpful in a therapeutic context.

  116. I really connected with Sugar; particularly with the permissiveness that her program gave it’s participants. I also really got the flexibility that can be found in presenting psycho-education to clients; that doesn’t come of as lecturing or patronising.

    I was also, frankly, amazed that something so engaging and humours could sit within the uncomfortableness identifiable and still invite active participation from participants. It seems that by externalising and characterising a problem, we can, in a way, curate conversations that remove typical roadblocks that might have otherwise been encountered.

    But it think that it was the way that externalising allowed Barb to be so mindful and respectful to culture. Externalising gave her the freedom to build up their own approaches based on client/community needs, and I think this may be of huge benefit to brining talking therapy into communities which otherwise may have been avoidant.

    I’m thinking of my own work and can see where enabling a client the space to sit with the pain and trauma of pregnancy loss in this way. Where by she can begin to untangle all of the shame, distance and isolation by looking towards her experience/s in a way that allows for better access to resilience and strengths.

  117. Barbara Lingard’s “Sugar” caught my eye.  When she claims, “who knows what future directions will hold”, I believe it sums up the flexibility of externalising. As well, inviting the group members to ask questions was a brilliant way to offer psycho-education and get the clients curious about how the problem influences their lives. A wonderful way to help groups and individuals discuss the ‘I don’t know’ and ‘I don’t understand’ blockage that often arises in therapy. I think any problem can be externalised. Narrative discourse is the opportunity to describe details of the stories of our lives. Which often help clients articulate problems without knowing the specifics of the problem until it unfolds through the discourse. 

    The landscape of people’s stories offers the narrative processes rich possibilities for the conversation to move beyond the world they perceive. The philosophical basis of narrative work thrives in ways of being with people that transform the storyteller and the listener. Thus, creating shifts that give rise to new meanings of the client’s story, evoking alternative views. Naming the problem opens the possibility to make decisions about the issue’s place in our lives. Opening a range of opportunities for action that are not available when problems are within individuals.

  118. I can see that externalizing problems is a really powerful way of coming away from blame and judgement, which then frees people up considerably in processing their experiences. I found the section on externalizing and responsibility particularly as I often work with families where there have been issues of violence and abuse, so learning strategies for actively “not colluding”, and being clear about where responsibility needs to be acknowledged is extremely important. I plan to read more about the statement position maps and use them as a way of processing people’s progression through the process, helping me organise my own observations. This has been a very useful module, thanks

  119. I found the frequently asked questions very helpful, particularly highlighting that externalising is not a technique but more a way of having conversations and a perspective to take. I was interested to learn that strengths could be externalised as I had previously thought it was only problems that needed to be externalised. The most effective example of externalising for me was the “I had a black dog” video clip. I work with depression frequently and think many of my clients would find this useful.

    I see clients who are experiencing a vast amount of different problems so almost anything could be externalised – depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety, loss, anger, self-esteem, eating problems, shyness etc.

    I think it would reduce shame and self-blame, I think it would help the client to feel more hopeful and more powerful. I think it would create more connection in the therapy space and help the client to feel less isolated and alone.

  120. The commonly asked questions were very helpful to me because they helped me understand how to better use externalization in practice. For this reason, that was my favourite resource in this module.
    I believe that externalizing can be used to help people see themselves as separate from the problem, and this makes it easier to see the problem more objectively. When we can look at a problem as outside of ourselves, it can be easier to work through.

  121. Most of what was presented in this module was of value – thank you. The use of externalising the problem from the person and scaffolding from that space in the work with post separated families has been quite effective.
    Mark Hayward’s discussion around our need to be mindful of ‘professional language’ and its impact ie tone we set, assumptions we make, where we position ourselves on the hierarchical tree – great refreshing reminders. For me, that applies in both personal and professional worlds. Mark did a great job in drawing our attention to the sensitivities around externalising abuse, violence and bullying.
    I also thoroughly enjoyed ‘Sugar’ (ignites interest in ways to incorporate the concept into group work with separated parents and children…hhhmm) and ‘I had a black dog, his name was Depression’

  122. Calgary, AB
    Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why? I liked the imagery of the black dog through the video. The dog became bigger when it almost overcame the man, but when he accepted it, it shrunk, took a back seat out of his main space, and became leashed. The moment where he hugs the black dog was powerful in that we can take our problems, love them and control them to a degree.
    I also liked the mapping piece as a way to follow the different areas to keep track of what is going on. I had attempted to do some narrative therapy, but was not aware of this mapping. (It was not really discussed in class very well.) If I had such a chart with me as a guide in a session, that might be helpful to place myself and how things are going.
    What sort of problems could be externalised in your context? With an individual I work with, the anger and temper that flares up over small concerns. The feelings of abandonment from family and friends.
    What difference might this make? I think externalizing a problem can allow for the item to be manipulated and controlled. It can take away shaming and those features that can be overwhelming and overpowering.

    • I’ve been thinking about how anxiety and depression can be externalized. It think it could be useful in having an almost outsider’s view on what is going on for yourself. I like the idea of exploring the problem as a thing and looking to what gives power to that thing. The trouble I’ve found is when people just aren’t feeling this externalizing piece. Can’t name it. Recently I’ve been trying to connect the idea of power. Who has the power?

  123. I found the video of the black dog most interesting. I felt that visual metaphors like this one would be particularly useful for the people I work with. Being able to seperate a problem or concern via a simple metaphor I found very useful in demonstrating just how logically the technique can be used. I think in the context that I work with externalising anxiety and behaviours of concern would be particularly useful as the people I work with often become labelled with their problem or difficulty. I think externalising would be useful to the individual but also for the people who support them as they are not often able to seperate the behaviour from the person. I think this could have a big impact on both the person but also how they are treated.

  124. I’m writing from Calgary, Canada.

    Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why?

    I found the map really helpful, and had to pause the video to go order the book. When I’ve talked about externalizing with coaching clients, I’ve gotten a lot of resistance to the idea that they are not the problem. Often, when we’re marginalized and have suffered trauma or abuse, the idea that we ARE the problem is so internalized and becomes part of our identities. Definitely it was that way for me until I started doing this kind of work in my own life. The map is helpful because it offers a gentle and non-judgemental framework for easing away from that very closely held belief that “I am the problem” and resituates the person into a new position of control. Often “I am the problem” is a desirable position because if I am the problem and I am in control of myself, then I am in control of the problem. If the problem is external, then it might not be our own fault, and we might not be able to control it. But this framing allows someone to move from “I am the problem” (and therefore control it), to “I am the expert in the problem” (and therefore control the narrative about it). I love that.

    What sort of problems could be externalised in your context?

    The problem I run into most often among my communities and coaching clients is “I am unloveable/unworthy” – there are a lot of different issues that can inform this problem, and I think externalizing could be really helpful.

    What difference might this make?

    Hopefully, successfully externalizing the problem would open up some space for people to recognize counter stories from their own lives when they have felt loved and loveable, or worthy.

  125. Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why?
    I would have to say that Mark’s Hayward description of the framework for externalizing was of great help.
    What sort of problems could be externalised in your context?
    As I mentioned before, I am very used to working with anxiety issues and following a cbt approach. However there are many people who consult me with “stories” of divorce and existentialist issues concerning their life choices, dreams, objectives, ideals. I can see how externalizing these subjects from the person may help them unblock and facilitate actions towards the changes they feel would help.

    What difference might this make?
    For instance, there is a women who is living an unhappy marriage for 6 years now. They have a daughter. She sees herself as being unlovable, and therefore, although she really wants to get divorce, she cannot take action because she will be alone forever as she is unlovable. I believe externalizing/ separtating this unlovable view of herself may help her not be defined by that!

  126. The concept of externalizing is one of the main reasons why I found myself attracted to narrative therapy as a type of therapy. I think that it can be very powerful for individuals to separate from the problem because it allows the person to be the hero of their own story again rather than the villain.

  127. I particularly enjoyed the video with the Black Dog named Depression.
    The video is full of metaphors for how depression can make you feel (e.g. like there is a big dog that you have to drag with you wherever you go).
    What was interesting for me was to recognise that these sorts of metaphors are what externalising can be about – the feeling (or problem) can be named and described like a metaphor and externalised.

  128. This lesson on externalizing I find most valuable and exciting during my work with woman and children impacted by abuse.
    Listening to women initially blaming themselves then witnessing them describing their situations in different ways when externalized and allowing women to be given the opportunity to reclaim their lives from the effects of the problem can only benefit them on their journey to growth and healing.

  129. G’day from Busselton, Western Australia.

    The concept of externalising was very interesting for me, as I had wondered on the impact this would face in a clients willingness to accept responsibility for their choice in the case of maladaptive behaviour, although this was clarified in Carey & Russel’s article on Externalising – commonly-asked questions. Exploring the effects of the problem on ones self as well as the effect on others would appear to give a client awareness to the choices and consequences of the decision making processes, both providing insight into the effects contributed by the problem, and the insight into the effects associated with the contribution of the clients actions.

    Exploring the maladaptive schema that may be sustaining a problem appears to provide full acknowledgement of the effects of the problem during the implementation of the Statement of position map 1, during the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th stages.

    After watching a TED talk by Elyn Saks – a tale of mental illness,this had shown me the potential of exteralising the effects of mental illness was both a way of coping and accepting the effects that chronic schizophrenia has on her life, and the lives of others suffering with mental illness. This had also appeared to reinforce the need of medication to control the psychosis she suffered; showing that Elyn has and is taking responsibility in her actions, although can still externalise the effects that chronic schizophrenia has in her life.

    Thankyou for the opportunity to comment, Cheers, Shane

  130. Hello, I am writing today from Nova Scotia, Canada. The resources in this chapter have provided an array of practices for externalizing conversations, all of which confirm Michael Whites notion; “The person is not the problem, the problem is the problem.” Mark Hayward’s discussion using maps in narrative therapy really caught my attention. Creating a guide to externalizing problems and what the process might look like when we are introducing questions and responses that create space between the person and the problems they are facing. Maps are such a profound metaphor for life; a birds eye view. I feel the knowledge shared from this chapter will serve myself and many others who become involved in these conversations. As we let go of attachment to dominant stories and create space between ourselves and the problems we face, who knows what new opportunities and possibilities can come to be!

  131. From Melbourne, Australia

    I loved Mathew Johnstone’s depiction of depression in the story of the black dog. I had stumbled along one of his books previously and have found it very helpful in explaining the experience to clients of all ages. It seems particularly appropriate with children also, who can be helped through making abstract concepts such as anxiety more concrete.

    Externalisation seems like a very intuitive and human thing to do – like in cultures or traditions where moral qualities are deified – I’m very interested to know more about it – I am thinking also about the need to be careful around the notion of responsibility and self-efficacy- if you locate the problem outside of yourself, do you feel equally able to do something about the problem?

  132. I found both the Externalizing – Commonly asked questions as well as Mark Hayward’s video to be very helpful. I was particularly interested in the portions about responsibility and avoiding externalizing “combat” themes as well as finding the client’s way to describe a problem that may have previously been a diagnosis (depression) or adult description (temper tantrums).
    How would this be applied to couples dealing with infidelity? I would love to know if there was information out there specific to couples dealing with this issue especially at the beginning of the process when they are in crisis.
    I am excited to begin practicing externalizing conversations in my own life/world before jumping in with clients. I can see many applications to any problems a client may have.
    I am writing from Lakeville, Minnesota, USA.

  133. Hello everyone, I am a fourth year social work student and I found Mark Hayward’s discussion on externalising particularly helpful. Utilising charts to map conversations was the most insightful aspect of this discussion. Charts would be a helpful tool for reflection and something that I would like to incorporate into my future practice. I also found the discussion on being responsible with the use of externalising with perpetrators of violence and in situations of abuse useful. Thank-you for this content.

  134. Hi, I am writing from Adelaide, Australia. I particularly, enjoyed the case study example, by Mark Hayward. I think it clearly demonstrated how externalising can be used in a counselling conversation.I think the vast amount of problems can be externalised but Mark Hayward also highlighted where he set his limits for externalising problems in relation to violence and abuse. I think the difference it makes is it allows the person with the problem to be an active participant and an expert on how to resolve their own problem rather than a passive participant. It allows more insights to be gained on the problem this way and to achieve greater depth in the conversation.I think it also results in more solutions which are generated by the individual with the problem which in turn means they are more likely to act upon as you have their buy in.

  135. Upon reflection, Maggie Carey and Shona Russell’s article was a particularly insightful resource about externalising because it really spoke to the conscious and unconscious space that creates, influences, forms and establishes experiences in our lives. I really connected to their encouragement not to judge the externalising process, but to be curious about it: to dissect it, to learn about it’s history and place it in a context and culture, and accepting the changes and evolution of what is being externalised. Pertinent to this process is that our thoughts and our stories do not manifest abstractly, rather, there is a history to everything and once we can externalise and see it form as “our story” we can begin to challenge it and critically reflect on its relevance.

    I practice Social Work in Central Australia and I think that post-colonial trauma can be externalised in this context. And to clarify, I don’t mean externalising it in a way that devalues and diminishes the experience of that trauma, or negates responsibility and accountability that we all must take on in relation to this trauma, but to locate it in a bigger sphere of systemic violence and oppression is important. On the one hand, this effect can produce a level of disillusionment and helplessness, but I think it can also be externalised in a way that can promote solidarity, resistance, advocacy and resilience.

  136. I really enjoyed reading about ‘Sugar’. I think having a physical representation can really help to externalise and being able to engage with ‘Sugar’ by asking questions was extremely helpful. Externalising has so many therapeutic benefits and can enable a person to examine a difficulty and problem solve more effectively when the problem is distanced somewhat from themselves.

  137. I live and work in Alice Springs in Northern Territory of Australia.

    I was particularly drawn to the cartoon video of the Black Dog. This visual display of someones experience of externalizing and exploring depression, together with the commentary, clearly demonstrated how powerful this approach can be.

    I also enjoyed the talk given by Mark explaining how he had worked with Joey in a way that allowed Joey to define and own his bullying behaviors without shame or blame.

    I believe that externalizing could be used in grief counseling to encourage people to explore, describe and experience their grief in a way that allows them to accept the death of the person they have lost, express their pain, and ultimately create a new relationship to the dead person which can assist them in adjusting to life without that person.

    This might prove a particularly effective approach when grief process is prolonged rather than adaptive.

  138. Hello everyone,

    I guess the resource that stands out for me is the 4 step process for statement of position. I have worked with externalising before in regards to Acceptance Commitment Therapy, however, it has not got the same emphasis on position, as we always assumed that it was a negative position on the difficulty or story.However,I can see how this aspect can increase client control on the topic and shift the power away from the therapist and into the clients hands.

    I have used techniques in externalising across multiple settings, from diabetes management and lifestyle change through to panic disorder or victims of crime. I find the process to be brilliant at depersonalising the difficult experiences, however I also like to use it in regards to some positive feelings, such as when a father is involved wholly with his children, or someone with depression is able to get on top of their distress. The reason for this isn’t to decrease the effect of the moment but to build recognition for these moments and have them further develop the clients story of success.

    In essence, by using externalising techniques, the clients are able to better understand their own journey and understand that they may not be “angry” but they are experiencing anger and by depersonalising it, they have better recognition for it and more likely to treat it.

  139. I found the presentation by Mark Hayward and attached material particularly useful to help guide externalising conversations beyond externalising the problem to helping the person consider their context, values and weave alternative storylines.
    Seeing the black dog video again also powerfully highlighted the value of externalising.

    I feel that as Social/Community Workers we are trained to consider and naturally consider people in the context of their culture and history and much larger systems, so we naturally externalise peoples problems. However, this gives me the tools and language to assist people to externalise problems for themselves and to use this as a means of reclaiming their lives.

    Problems that I may assist people to externalise in my context might include mental health, parenting struggles, alcohol use, violence and self-esteem issues. I feel that in externalising these things, people are given an increased sense of self-worth and empowerment, and confidence to move forward with their lives.

  140. Most of the resources in this chapter were extremely useful in furthering the understanding of externalisation
    In my work setting these ideas are especially helpful with clients who have internalised negative attitudes about themselves. it is also helpful to those who have internalised oppressive social structures and identities.

  141. All of the resources are useful. I particularly appreciated the “Statement of Position Map 1” because it is a sensible, practical, ‘simple’, ‘working tool’ to keep on track with observations notations, conversational progress and success level, especially where a person’s “attention” skills and thought congruence are challenged. Besides the person asking the question surely would be challenged to remember everything that transpires in a session LOL 🙂
    Working with individuals from ages ranging from young children-adult in culturally diverse contexts provides for a vast range of problems and management of these.I loved the “Black Dog” as a metaphor for externalisation of the problem especially in relation to those with language difficulties.
    What difference might this make?
    I love the way this provides a safe place/space to explore difficult, painful and or scary issues for the individual concerned.

  142. I found the video of Mark Hayward is really useful with the transcript of Joey. It make me understand the externalizing much better and very practical as well.
    After studied this chapter, I have better knowledge that externalizing is just a start of narrative therapy and it is different with other theories. It is going to enrich the alternative stories and making people to externalize the problem from people. This golden rule “The person is not the problem, the problem is the problem” is kept in my memory now.

  143. The Commonly Asked Questions provided a great background to the meaning of externalising, based on how problems are internalised. Placing space between the person and the problem I understood already, but the idea of externalising ‘good’ as well as ‘bad’ experiences/traits added to my understanding.
    The Maps of Narrative Practice video provided a practical example of how to apply these concepts and I found myself applying this to my own personal situation as I worked through it.
    In my context, I saw how I could externalise attachment issues, and rather than being labelled a ‘bad’ mother, partner and daughter, I could use this distance to explore the effects of the past and how I reached this identity under the influence of others’ ideas and beliefs.
    The difference this might make is that I am able to explore alternate definitions of mothering and partnering that allow me to retain a sense of separate ‘self’ which may not be ‘bad’ after all.

  144. Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why?
    Externalising, in particular the point about “professional language” which has become such a common experience, for eg when a client is referred to you by their GP because of their depression or anxiety, they already have their problem internalised. I also really enjoyed The Statement of Position Map 1with explanation from Mark Hayward – I found this very useful and could see how you could use this as a framework to create movement through a session.

    What sort of problems could be externalised in your context? What difference might this make?
    I work in trauma and torture and the impacts of these including the somatic symptoms could all be externalised. In the case of refugees who may not speak the same language as their counsellor this technique could benefit clients where they are able to describe the characteristics (or draw, paint etc) of their problem rather than being confused by traditional psychological professional language.

  145. I really liked Mark Haywards video. He described externalization gracefully and also when to be careful with externalizing.
    In mental health depression, psychosis, anxiety, and not wanting to take medication could be externalized.
    This would be helpful in seperating someone from the problem so they could describe the problem and discuss its impacts upon them.

  146. I love the transcripts of “Externalising – commonly asked questions” and the video of Mark Hayward, which provide contexts and practices helping to understand where and how externalising works. Besides, the video of “I had a black dog, his name was depression” demonstrates a vivid example of externalising for me.

    Actually, I feel that externalising does exist in our daily life, typically when interacting with small kids, though we may purposely avoid it wth the grown-ups considering that it might be naive.

    A few days ago, when I used externalising in the discussion with a lady who was suffering from depression, the sense of humour did intrigue kind of curiosity from her.

  147. One of the ideas that especially struck me were the parallels between the Statement of Position worksheet, and an approach to working with young African American men I’ve used to explore the contours of self, masculinity and oppression in marginalized communities–work that we published back in the 1990s. My associates and I, like Mark, used questions much more than statements. These were the four angles of questioning after they had viewed a rap-music video: (1) what did you see? (2) what did it mean to you [what was the theme, moral, or statement being made]?, (3) What makes you say that [their position on #3]?, (4) How does what you saw fit with your personal & cultural values? and (5) If what you saw is contrary to your values, what can you to to improve the situation? Mark’s worksheet was very powerful for me, because he used themes similar to ours, but his focus was on the problems on individuals, whereas our work focused on the perils of masculinity and social oppression. His give to me is a way that I can address both personalized and social problems (as part of socipolitical development) using a very similar framework! Thanks, Mark!!

    The one thing I didn’t understand was the value of tracking statements over time in the worksheet? What advantage does that provide over simply classifying important things that were said in the appropriate category?

  148. I have experienced the impact of externalizing conversations in my practice. It allows me and the client to find space from a seemingly overwhelming and heavy problem story. The video by Mark Hayward really helped me understand the importance of establishing the client’s position in relation to the problem. I am looking forward to integrating this more fully into my sessions. I am wondering about externalizing good things and how it fits into externalizing conversations with clients.

  149. As a community development worker, I loved the article on Sugar and it has encouraged me to consider how I might apply narrative therapy techniques in my work with culturally and linguistically diverse communities, particularly in the area of mental health. I loved the fact that it externalised the problem in a way that was culturally appropriate, humorous and non-threatening (it engaged the whole group rather than putting any individuals on the spot). I think this would also apply to the refugee communities we work with and might be an effective way of addressing the stigma and shame attached to mental health.
    Thanks, Dominika from Cairns

  150. Hello all! I am fascinated with externalizing and the freedom that often comes when a person is able to separate themselves from the problem and begin moving toward the life they wish to live. I found Mark’s video to be very informative, especially in the use of the Position Map. It was very easy to follow the up and down and up and down progression that eventually led to a clear position on Joey’s part. Reading about these things is helpful, but ‘experiencing’ it through someone else is extremely beneficial.
    I also have to add that I loved ‘Sugar’ and it has given me pause to think through issues that my school community is facing and how I might be able to address these issues in ways that are non-threatening and brings them to life.
    Thanks for a great chapter filled with valuable information!

  151. I enjoyed hearing more about when to externalize and when to limit the externalization process, as I find this to be a delicate dance. I appreciate looking at the client in this way – balancing the ways the client did not “create” the problem and “is not the problem” yet is responsible for behavior and the process of resolution.

  152. Externalizing sounds a very helpfull techniqe, but when children come for therapy they sometimes don’t feel that they have a problem. Their parents bring them to the therapist. Do you recommend naming the problem by the parents ot the therapist first. Or rather waiting for the child to come himself to the conclusion about the name of his problem?


    Yafit form Israel

    • hi Yafit, I’d suggest you read the book ‘Narrative therapy with children and their families’ by Michael White and Alice Morgan for some ideas about this. Especially the chapter 5 of this book entitled ‘Fostering collaboration – between parents and children, and between child protection services and families’. Warmly, David D

  153. Thank you for this abundance of many-media references and resources, a real treasure trove!
    The Sugar and Black Dog stories left a strong impression on me. There is something empowering – if not comforting – about being able to externalize a problem so that it loses its ability to exert power from within, and to act as an oppressive force on one’s life. The mere act of placing the problem outside of oneself allows for a shift in perspective, as the transformation vis-a-vis the black dog so cleverly illustrates.
    Much gratitude to Mark for providing a step-by-step analysis of Joey’s gradual understanding of bullying… with guidance, but more importantly, in his OWN way and time.

  154. I was very moved by the WHO black dog video. I counsel clients with mild to moderate depression within the IAPT framework in the NHS as a trainee counsellor at University. I am a mature student.

    I am very conscious of the stories clients tell themselves and have always felt as though working with metaphor is a great strength of mine. Obviously listening approach to clients.

    Thank you. I also have a young teenager and this story telling approach important and useful in parenting for me.

  155. Really great to see an example of the position map in process.
    Thank you for working through it so thoroughly and showing your thoughts as the process went on.

  156. Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why?
    I loved Matt Johnston’s “I had a black dog” story. The illustrations subtly yet simply captured the text and took me as the audience on a journey with a person changing his relationship with his depression. For me it expressed very well the power of externalising – and the liberation that can be engendered.

    What sort of problems could be externalised in your context?
    I work with men and women whose lives have been affected by childhood trauma. Being able to externalise conversations about past overwhelming experiences can lend people some distance, a reflective space, from where they can choose how to reinterpret their story.

    What difference might this make?
    The story can being to lose its constitutive power over the storyteller.

  157. Deo le Roux from Cape Town South Africa

    Paraphrasing Philippa’s concluding question – What relevance do you see for yourself in Michael’s initial explorations with children regarding externalization?

    It reminds me to seek out opportunities to engage with children in dialogical teaching and learning, so they teach and I learn.

    Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why?

    Mark Hayward’s video is a winner in my view. Why? Because of its simplicity. It confirms the view that if you understand something really well, you can make it easy for others to understand.

    What sort of problems could be externalized in your context?

    Not being a counselor/ therapist and researching Narrative Practice for personal interest I went through much of the externalization process in a self-reflective manner, without a discussion partner.

    In the end this provided me with a better understanding of the dynamic of internalization and externalization. It provided insight into cases where I had internalized certain events/ negative conclusions and it became clear that this response was not inevitable. Rather, I allowed internalization due to lack of an understanding of the consequences. Being aware of this pitfall (apparently) enables me to circumvent it quite simply without further strengthening the internalized aspect.

    What difference might this make?

    From self-observation it is evident that recognition and contemplation of ‘negative internalization’ weakens the effect in due course. Internalizing positive conclusions seems useful at first. However, I’m not convinced that this is the best way to respond. At the moment it seems to me that a sense of personal agency does not necessarily have to be based on a ‘positive internalization’ for any given circumstance. It will be interesting to see whether this view is confirmed as time passes and I have more practice in observing the dynamic of internalization and personal agency.

  158. Catherine Strathalbyn SA
    I liked the diagram of the two people, one with the problem inside of them and one with the problem next to them.
    In my area of mental health, problems of worry, isolation and painful family relationships could be externalized. This would make a difference by separating out the person from the problem so the problem can be discussed with some distance.

  159. I’ve also had success using externalising with children. It seems effective to create a book about overcoming the externalised problem, with illustrations by the child if possible. It works well with “anger management” or “anxiety” issues (usually called something much different when externalised by the child). The finished book can be shared with others who can then support change in dealing with the problem, and even reflect on their own issues. I also love the idea that the story then has a life of its own and I imagine it being brought out again later, or even just resurfacing in future times for the child or others in their world.

  160. I have found externalising conversations very helpful when working with young children who have usually been present in doctors offices, at parent teacher interviews, and even around conversations their parents have had with other family members and friends, where they hear on a regular basis that they are a problem and how they are a problem.

    I usually get young children to draw and rename the problem, we then look at the picture while exploring what intentions the problem has for their life and how they can be defeated.

    I have been looking for a way to engage young adults in externalising conversations that would also be helpful and fun. After reading ‘introducing sugar’ i am inspired to maybe one day introduce an interview role play where the young adult 14+ or a close friend of theirs could pretend to play the role of the “problem” and be interviewed by the parents and myself with questions that get the young adult to outline the differences between them and the problem, what the problems intentions are for them and their future, what makes them strong and what weakens them etc. I think this would be another nice way to elevate the young adult into the role of expert in their life and show their own unique strengths on how they would weaken the problems influence as well as outline the supports needed to achieve this.

    The best thing about externalising conversations i have found, is that it allow’s the child’s voice to be louder then the problem. It shifts the parents position to now stand with the child as a team instead of against the child with the influence of blame, and it instantly repairs relationships as people feel encouraged by the work instead of experiencing a feeling of defeat.

  161. I find it encouraging that I have used some of the methods here described in the chapter Externalizing – Externalizing conversation. In my context we work in a strengths based and person centered approach, which places people whom we assist in the centre of their journey towards healing and change. Listening to the person’s story, being genuinely interested and validating their experience provide the foundation of working on externalizing the problem, giving room for the person to see her/himself in a different light and to enable her/ him to find a way to recognize and accept “I’m not the problem” however I can work towards finding a way to understand and cope with the problem”. In my context I enjoy working together with the person, “throwing” myself in conversation of the creation of their story lines, exploring the problem and giving it a name and also providing the person an opportunity to become aware/ acknowledge “hidden” skills, qualities and values, which increase self-awareness and worth.

    Black Dog presentation was very descriptive of how to externalise a problem – to become skillful and confident in externalising conversation and the usage of metaphors/language that has meaning to the client.

    I agree to the ” Commonly asked Questions” article that having these conversations utilising externalisation methods would require practice to become confident in using the client’s language in ways to separate the person from the problem and to build on creativity in characterising the problem/effects. This would be an area I would like to explore and practice.

  162. Lesley from Australia – Externalising is such a powerful way to acknowledge the persons authority of the knowledge and preferred way of living. I like the idea of the person becoming “the consultant” , the primary author to work with the counsellor to expose the problems effects and its intentions and bring forward the persons resistance to the problem. I believe that this type of pathway of enquiry places the person as the expert in their own life . I have done studies in Narrative and use narrative ideas in my work with people. It is so refreshing and less exhausting to not be looked upon as a professional with the answers. I build on the externalising conversation by sending the person a Therapeutic letter and have received many comments from the people who come to see me how helpful this tool is.

  163. I believe what really caught my attention was the point that an externalized problem need not be an “enemy” or something we, as therapists, teach people to erase or totally get rid of. The video of the black dog explains this well. The dog does not completely go away, but it can become smaller, less menacing, and even be a “teacher”. I found that incredibly important. When we teach our clients to externalize, we teach them not necessarily to combat their problem, but to tame it, and possibly, even see it’s value.
    On a similar note, listening to Joe’s transcript gives the message of how, through externalizing conversations, bullying might not be as enormous as it is originally seen. Something as simple as identifying the types of bullying, makes the problem seem less overwhelming and impossible to deal with.
    In my context, I think of how I worry so much about everything. Will I be late? Will I cause trouble for others? Will this project turn out well? I used to be called “the worrier”. But now, having externalized it and called it “the grey cloud”, I see it as something that is sometimes dark, but sometimes not so dark. I also see how the grey cloud also signals to me (like a teacher) of making sure I have done all that I need to do so that I make the best of my situation. So it becomes a guide, to see if I have covered all my bases. A guide and not a burden.
    And this externalizing has helped me, with, as the narrator of the video of the black dog, said, with humour integrated in as well. So I can say to myself “hey grey cloud, you seem pretty dark today”. And I feel more in charge of it, rather than it of me.

  164. Eve from Toowoomba, Queensland
    I have found this particular concept of externalizing very interesting and something that has been quite helpful in therapy. I introduced the concept to a client recently and for the first time she said she was able to see her situation in a different way and to see it without blaming herself. The processes provided by Mark in the video have also helped to give me ideas about future directions in working with clients. I liked the article on “Sugar” – working differently, and thought that externalizing the problem was a very powerful way to interest and engage clients.

  165. Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why?
    Externalizing resonates a lot with my practice of Theatre of the Oppressed and remind me of what we call ‘Cops in our Head’. In that sense, the idea of externalizing problems starting by ‘The person is not the problem…’ and going on a journey of naming it, naming its effects etc. is a new way of investigating these ‘cops’ or problems. In this sense I loved to read about ‘Sugar’, but also to be guided step-by-step through the chart by Mark Hayward.

    However, what first caught my attention was the ‘black dog’ of depression. It reminded me of the earthquakes in 2015 in Nepal, and afterwards especially parents approaching me being scared that their children were traumatized now. Many of these parents lived in remote areas with limited access to in-depth information, and in our conversations I felt like they didn’t really have a concept of trauma, but rather had heard the word around so much, that it became like a scary dark and unidentifyable dark cloud hanging over their heads. Videos like the ‘black dog’ might be a way of introducing ideas, such as depression, to people who are interested without getting into the clinical jargon – and also as a way of making it less a pathology, but a display of effects it can have on our lives – something that is easier for people to identify with, to say ‘yes, I experience that, too, sometimes’ without making them feel scared of being sick. However, as so many communities also have their own ways of conceptualizing trauma, depression and treatments in their own cultures, I am wondering how we could learn from each other and enrich each others’ knowledge we have gathered throughout many life-times. In that sense I really appreciate narrative therapy and its connection to storytelling, but also the invention of ‘Sugar’ 🙂

    What sort of problems could be externalised in your context?
    In my context, I am interested in investigating how fear, anger/defensiveness and physical symptoms of those could be externalised – especially in contexts of violence against women, cast-based discrimination or natural disaster. I am not clear from this module yet on how physical reactions are being engaged with in narrative practice and hope to learn more about it in the future. But I love, that the socio-political and cultural context is given weight here.

    What difference might this make?
    Not defining oneself over the problem, being able to take a stand back and observe the problem, rather than being it, could be a very empowering moment for people who experience for example anger or fear after having experienced sexual violence. At the same time, I also keep thinking about Mark Hayward’s thoughts on how to engage with perpetrators and their responsibilities and the connections with the cultural context. I am wondering if externalizing aspects of their line of thoughts and behavior might help men and boys, but also perpetrators, in deconstructing internalized thoughts and behavior of patriarchy and its effects on the people (especially women) around them, without getting extremely emotional and defensive about it. I am wondering if that would allow men to acknowledge the pain that is inflicted on women and engaging in constructive thoughts of how they envision themselves and the society they live in.

    • PS: I wanted to share that in the last week our theatre’s Social Theatre Team and I have developed a Forum Theatre Performance on HIV/Aids together. The Team consists of 9 members around the age of 20 and only three of them are female. I have worked with the female members in women’s theatre-sessions before, where we have also talked very openly about sexuality and sexual experiences, but was quite curious about how this mixed group would engage with the topic as part of its learnings related towards HIV/Aids – especially given that sexuality is a big taboo-topic in Nepal and that I as their ‘Joker’ (facilitator) was a new member in their group.
      Anyways, inspired by ‘Sugar’ I developed a performance as HIV-virus and also asked the team-members to take the stage as HIV-viruses to share what they have researched about it. I was astonished by how easy it was for the majority of the team-members to engage in this conversation, to share and to ask questions. Our session took almost two hours and we could have gone on and on. I also believe that the following sessions were much more informed and open, due to introducing the virus in such a way at first. It really helped us to develop a sensitive, informed and confident performance.
      Thank you for the inspiration!

  166. I am a student counselor and I have only done my first 50 hours of counseling. I have already had a very successful outcome with one client since I started using narrative externalizing. My client was cutting/self harm and has been under counselors for two years. I tried narrative and we named the cutting behavior as a cutting monster. The client stopped cutting by week four of the narrative therapy. Thank you so much for having this free course. It’s really helping people who would otherwise not get help. I have also suffered from jealousy problems and have been through counselling for it myself. No counselor ever tried narrative on me before so I have been externalizing my jealousy for myself and I am having some great relief from the problem.

  167. I have found this lesson particularly interesting and valuable for my current work with children. Working with children that experience severe behaviour problems and anger issues, I find the idea of externalizing helpful. However I think there is an important in near and far externalizing, in insuring I do not fully remove the child responsibility from the incident. I am hoping to use some of the techniques suggested in the Mark video, especially using the map. My hope is to use the map to further my ability to develop a full understanding and move through the analysis with the child. However, I do question what to do when a child is resistant to externalizing the problem or providing their own name and narrative to it.
    Strathmore, Canada

  168. I’ve been enjoying this exercise over the past fortnight, an idea that I have utilised a great deal in my work with treating eating disorders but haven’t visited for awhile. In particular I was able to engage two ladies this week in naming and thinking about the effect that their problem’s have had on them thus far. The feedback was tremendous from these ladies about their no longer feeling ‘crazy’ that they were responsible for the havoc wrecked on their relationships and careers. We were about to work towards an understanding about what the cost has been with regard to maintaining these problems and the perception that other’s have of them. I was thinking as a result of watching the video from Mark that now I have the next steps in my mind for how to proceed with the next sessions with both these ladies and others. I felt revitalized in my work by revisiting these ideas in session.

    I have also been thinking about how I have been engaging with the children I work with lately and feeling like I was leaning too heavily on cognitive behavioural strategies that aren’t entirely playful and will be happy to begin to take Mark’s lead in getting the children to describe their problem. I am hopeful that this will begin to decrease the divergence I witness between the parent’s position on why their child is coming to therapy and the child’s version of the problem. It seems so obvious now to put the child in the executive position around their problem, I feel silly to have been blinded by this in my recent practice.

  169. I really enjoyed Mark Hayward’s presentation and resources, and ‘Sugar’ (especailly the cultural relevance). I was particularly interested in Mark’s explanation of his stance in regards to externalising when the person has participated in acts of violence or abuse. It makes me wonder about people who may have been forced to commit violent acts against their will, and how complex this would be in terms of identity, culture, social and relational background, etc.
    I think that feeling stressed, depressed, or overwhelmed and constantly ‘time poor’ could be externalised. I can imagine that this could put distance between the person and their problem, enable them to see the impact of the problem and the mismatch with their values, and then give them space to view ways of addressing the problem.

  170. Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why?
    The resource that caught my attention were the maps of Narrative Practice by Mark Hayward. The reason the resource caught my attention was because I found that when I try to externalize a problem I struggled to ask the correct questions and as a consequence the problem became more complex.

    What sort of problems could be externalised in your context?
    In my context any kind of problem can be externalized since the person who is dealing with the problem knows exactly how it is impacting on them.

    What difference might this make?
    I did an exercise on myself to understand what problems were distressing me and what steps I had undertaken to address these problems. I found that most of my problems were in the past and did not exist in the present since I have been actively dealing with these problems during that time.
    I found that I subconsciously kept going back to my old problems which were very active in my mind. Externalization gave me the tools to separate these problems and appreciate myself more and make me feel good about myself.

  171. I loved the linked resource “Introducing Sugar” by Barbara Wingard. I have found externalising successful, though have only used this practice to navigate externalising problems. I am very interested in continuing using this practice to explore positives, strengths and the ‘gems’ to thicken the preferred story.

    Though what has really excited me was the use of externalising as a facilitator in a community or learning context, much like the “Introducing Sugar” story. I can imagine the use of this practice in learning sessions. Initially I thought of subjects such as healthy bodies, safe sex practices would be great topics to externalise though I now imagine this practice could be introduced in many learning opportunities. I can see this practice not only used in a therapeutic context though possibly as student projects designed for learning tools and developed as a community.

    Communicating and negotiating concerns in a community learning environment can sometimes be tricky and can entice defensive responses. This is an area I would like to explore more and introduce externalising processes, to avoid a perception of blame when raising concerns and increase the outcome to remain solution focused.

    Brisbane Australia

  172. The resource that struck me the most in this chapter is the video with Mark Haywood talking about externalising and the statement of position map 1. I liked how the process supported the young boy to discuss and describe his views and preferences regarding bullying. I was thinking about how other ways of working might approach working with him and how he might be seen as a problem in himself, or his relationship with his mother (or other important person in his life) might be problematised. I also liked how other examples were given of how externalising can elicit rich descriptions of issues that can be given an expert’s label (e.g. the black depths, pounce of the wolf monster). I’ve been thinking about what could be externalised in my context (domestic violence). I think perhaps perpetrator tactics like secrecy and trickery (Laing and Kamsler, can’t remember date) could be externalised, and emotions/feelings. I’m wondering if physical sensations can be externalised? I don’t know. I will have to do some more reading. What would this mean for a person if a physical sensation (or “trauma symptom”) was externalised, would it be helpful? In some domestic violence services at the moment there is a strong discourse of trauma/symptoms and sometimes the political and social contexts get lost.

  173. Every part of this lesson was useful and engaging, but perhaps the part that gave me most food for thought was the Commonly Asked Questions.

    It was good to start thinking about the relationship between poststructuralism and narrative practice. Related to that, the links between narrative practice and social justice came into sharper focus for me in this lesson, including joining some dots between these things and intersectional feminism and medicalisation.

    One thing that especially excited me was the idea of handing back the role of expert to the person with the problem – and I saw how beautifully that exploring ways to externalise the problem can do this. I have adhd, and I’ve been building my own metaphors, and finding ways to conceptualise it that make sense to me since I was diagnosed, and sometimes I feel really frustrated by the clinical definitions that seem to be imposed on me – and on other people I know with adhd, who also often have developed their own ways to conceptualise it.

    One idea I find challenging (although I see that it makes sense) is externalising ‘strengths’ as well as ‘weaknesses’, and I also wonder where or how to draw the line in externalising. At a certain point, I find my whole idea of self is challenged. I’m going to think and read more about this.

    One way I think problems could be externalised in my context:

    Earlier this week, after reading most of the lesson, I was talking with a creative writing student about the writer’s block he was suffering. Because of this lesson on externalisation, I thought about how ‘writers block’ is a clinical, authority word, that doesn’t fully (or at all) reflect the individual writer’s experience. So I talked with the student to understand exactly what the experience he was having was – and this was SO helpful.

    I did falter when it came to exploring possible solutions, and I found I kept impulsively trying to offer my own solutions, and floundered, unsure how best to try and encourage ideas for actions from the student. He definitely made good headway with this on his own steam though, so it ended well!

    I have more thoughts on narrative practice and writers’ processes, but this is getting long! Lastly, related to this, I had an ‘aha’ moment yesterday when I realised that the widely shared TED talk by Elizabeth Gilbert – ‘Your Elusive Creative Genius’ – seems like it might be a pretty good, accessible example of externalising a strength? (Even if some of her other work unsettles me.)

  174. Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why?

    I really appreciated the example of the position map with Joey’s story. I believe using this resource in my practice would assist me in understanding where the client is at in their understanding of the situation. It would assist in externalizing the “problem” and identifying the values they desire and move toward the person they want to be.

    What sort of problems could be externalised in your context?

    I work with youth in a School setting so externalising could be used both in counselling appointments with the student, developing understanding and support in the family and educating staff.

    What difference might this make?

    This would assist students, parents and staff to view the problem as separate to the student which will result in a more supportive and empowering response.

    Thankyou Dulwich centre for making these resources avaliable. I am really enjoying learning more about Narrative therapy.

  175. Hi,I´m Veronica from Argentina, again. I want to share an experience with you. Last week I was stolen (or I lost) my wallet with my national identity card, my driving license, my credit card, and some money. And thinking that “the problem is the problem” helped my so much to stay calm and go to the police station. I solved the problem of getting all these cards again in just one week. I could focus on solving the problem and not on feeling sorry for myself. My self confidence was increased and I felt so happy for this.
    The SOP is a very usefull guide to make externalising a real process. I use to paint in class with my students and the image of “the black dog” inspired me a lot. The children can enjoy externalising their problems by making a picture of them, and personalising them.
    I found that objectification of the problem, instead of the person, is a very important new point of view. It is so easy to speak about the “problem kid”, at school…
    The problem is the problem takes you to a new place from where you can observe the problem separately from the person. That opens you a door to a new group of tools to solve the problem.
    Please forgive my English mistakes…
    See you and thank you.

  176. The powerpoint presentation was the resource that stood out to me, especially slide 2. This slide talked about experience-near and experience-distant descriptions. Experience-near descriptions giving ownership to the client and not putting the therapist in the expert role.
    Slide 3 then lead me to think of other ways externalising could be included in therapy – such as drawing or other art, music and sounds or play therapy.
    Personally, I love the concept of externalising which is one of the ideas that drew me towards Narrative Therapy.
    In regards to Narrative work I imagine a person signified as a piece of clay and slowly a little ball is taken away and placed beside the larger piece – after some time the larger piece of clay is surrounded by smaller pieces with the larger piece still in the middle. This to me signifies all the alternative stories a person has, not just, as Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie so eloquently put it, one single story.

  177. Which resource in this chapter particularly caught your attention and why? Matthew Johnstone’s Black Dog of Depression clip really caught my attention in how well it visually portrayed the externalisation processes; and the considerate use of language.

    What sort of problems could be externalised in your context?
    In my work, I aim to externalise a person’s experience of PTSD (I might name it for this purpose “the dark terror of night”), particularly as the trauma response of the client group can be considered normal reactions to abnormal event(s) including ongoing persecution and human rights injustices.

    What difference might this make?
    It seems to provide the person consulting me with a sense of breathing space between them as a person and the heavy, isolating experience of the problem. It also helps to normalise their experience. I have found that externalising also helps to build trust and rapport.

  178. Singapore

    I found the statement of position map very helpful – it gave me an overview of exploring together with the client a fuller, richer story behind issues/challenges. It guided me in the types of questions I would sensitively ask and for what purpose.
    It is interesting that these could be linked with the phenomenological exploration of an artwork. Asking ‘what stands out in their artwork’ could lead to deeper conversations concerning the client’s values, experiences, position and connections.
    Externalising the problem to create distance and a springboard for further enquiry resonates with art therapy and I’m excited to integrate this further into practice. The problem and not the person is addressed and externalised as an artwork which in itself becomes the third element in the art therapy triangular relationship. This third party – an object of transference and countertransference.

  179. I have found this chapter on externalising really useful to take forward with me in my practice. I have had some training in narrative therapy during my course on systemic practice and really took to the ideas around the problem being separate to and not defining the person. I also found that there is a lot more to applying the technique of externalisation and externalising conversations and at times I have found myself struggling to apply it as effectively as I would have liked. Watching Mark Hayward’s video was really useful and the idea of having a map to refer yourself back to and structure some of the ideas of externalising is something I am definitely going to take away. I also really liked the idea of ‘charting’ and feel like this will support me in recognising the intentions behind certain questions I am asking for. As Mark noted in his video, using a chart can also be useful to gauge whether the questions you are asking are too high up the map and that more time may be needed on the other levels first.

    I also found it really useful reading the common pitfalls of externalising in Shona Russell and Maggie Carey’s paper. I can recognise that at times I may have focused too much on externalising only the ‘bad things’ with the hope that an individual will recognise all the good qualities they have within them. As the paper noted, externalising can be done for both and this is only the start. The focus in on strengthening the alternative stories. This has given me a lot to take away and think about and I feel that this chapter has helped me to engage with narrative theory on a deeper and more appreciative level than I had initially.

  180. I truly liked the whole idea of Externalising as to Labeling the problem this way the person is able to see the problem as something to solve and not view it as that of themselves personally.This person is more able to understand and identify a solution to make the changes in their own behavior or how they feel about themselves.
    Bulling was a good example, yet in a child that is anxious I feel can also help.

  181. Hola/ Hello Friends Of DC!

    Well, my coments about this Map on externalizing conversations are: It’s great to see that there are some practices that allowe people to take distance from what they call their problems, specially when it’s been soo long since they have been strugguling with them.

    At the same time I Could say that the efects of externalizing are great! Because they provide a point where to ”pull” to an other places: richer stories!

    In an other book I read that the questions we make thru externalizing conversatinos are called ”relative influence questions” because they try to find what are or were the effects of the problem, what are the present of the problem, and where do we want to go regarding the problem.

    Also a very good point I can find here, it’s also the chances we have to separate ”Qualityes” and to find out how they were created.

    Thank you Dulwich Center.

  182. “The person is not the problem, the problem is the problem”: what powerful language and wonderful to dip our toes into “externalising” the problem. Though we are cautioned not to allow this to imply a lack of responsibility in areas where violence (actions or language) may be present such as bullying: noted by both Russell and Carey and in Mark Hayward discussion of Joey’s transcript.
    Shona Russell’s and Maggie Carey’s “Externalising – commonly-asked questions” is a great introduction. The idea of “externalising” our problems (e.g., anxiety, depression, lack of self-worth) and personal qualities (e.g. our strengths) is exciting as it opens up being able to have a myriad of conversations with what is out there, outside of ourselves; opening up multiple stories and possibilities in dealing with this external thing, the hitherto problem. Seeing problems as social constructions is inviting, as we can then deconstruct them outside a self-blame framework: this provides us with a feeling of power over our problem (or any other aspect of our being). Being able to choose how we name this externalised problem has the potential to empower us and even bring humour into the stories as we talk to this thing. “De-centring” this problem creates a space between us and the problem and is a powerful image wherein the space can be filled with conversations utilising our strengths and skills. I wonder if this could be useful around a dining room table in a family context.
    Introducing Sugar: this story emphasises the power of image and the conversation, allowing participation through questions and answers on the participants terms (culture), of humour in thickening a story, and how by doing this in group normalises the issue.
    Matthew Johnstone’s story of overcoming the “black dog of depression”: the power of visually seeing the “black dog”, how dealing with this dog can sap all energy and take over your life, with the importance of understanding this as an “equal opportunity mongrel” and “being open and authentic” to those who love you. This is empowering, for so often we feel we are alone with our issues, excluding our loved ones from our pain.
    Mark Hayward’s presentation thickens our understanding: provides examples of questions, giving boundaries to the problem; focussing on us being the expert of our problem; exploring its history and effects, how it operates (when, how, whom); our position on the problem bringing in our values. All good fodder for our own conversations, with ourselves, our families.
    Joey’s transcript: how to be careful separating the problem (violent behaviour/ bullying) from the person (9-year-old); exploring background for ideas, choices and position, including values. How Joey is empowered through questions from his parents.
    Reflecting on my own personal practice, I like to see issues on my shoulder, easier to chat to and brush off as unhelpful. Reading about externalisation reinforces the usefulness of seeing the problem as separated from me.
    Brisbane, Australia

  183. New South Wales, Australia.

    The concept of externalising is also a concept I have come across previously. However, I found the concept of externalising in “sugar” really cemented the concept for me and I felt like to took externalising to a new level. I am excited to continue to use and to develop my use of externalising. I feel externalising is am empowering tool for the client and also the clinician, it reminds us not to see a client as a diagnosis (something I have noticed in the “hospital story”). Separates the client from the illness, empowering them.

  184. I found this information very useful, we can all remember that a 9 year olds’ need respect for their intelligence when talking with them. There has been no blame placed on Joey here and Joey now feels confident enough with the therapist to own up to types of behaviour he has engaged in. Further Joey was able to eventually come to a value position on bullying and as he has been given an opportunity to discuss the subject instead of being ‘told’ he has learnt quite a lot about the effect of his behaviour on others.

  185. I really liked the video of Mark and the way he explains the practice of externalization. One of the things that caught my attention was the position on the problem and the values of the person considering the problem. I never thought of it that way. On my practice I use externilizing, but i find it dificult to ask question of externalization because of the internilizing practice I’m use to. Althought, I keep trying.

  186. I am writing from Perth, Western Australia.

    I have been exposed to externalising during my studies, but only at a basic level. These resources have deepened my understanding of externalising, especially in regards to how this tool is useful for ourselves and clients.

    I found Mark Haywiods statement position map to be helpful practically in applying externalising into my life and work. Working in this way can feel out of the comfort zone for some therapists, however the many examples provided for how to introduce externalising to clients will help to minimise the clumsiness and increase my confidence for introducing this practice into my work.

    I also found Barbara Wingard’s story of ‘Sugar’ to be very insightful. It demonstrated to me the non blaming and non threatening aspect of externalising. The reading lead me to reflect on times with my clients when I have attempted to explore a ‘problem’ (without externalising) and there has been some resistance and denial expressed by the client. It was obvious to me that this was because of shame, embarrassment or uncomfortableness around the problem. In this situations I can really see the value in using externalising. Externalising minimises the shame as it removes the problem from the persons self or identity, reinforcing the person is not the problem. By externalising problems we are likely to experience less resistance as shame has been minimised.

  187. Michael White’s “The person is not the problem, the problem is the problem” is a great mantra to remember. I enjoyed Mark’s video, particularly as it was an application of the theory to a real-life conversation. The map would be helpful in doing one’s own critical reflection as well as in supervision. I appreciated Mark’s thoughts on the limits to externalisation around issues of violence. Responsibility and accountability are important. I appreciate Mark’s concern for the therapist’s sensitivity. I think this will be a case of practise, practise, practise. We won’t always get it right but we keep on trying. Externalisation is a tool I’ve used in my own journalling as well as in my story coaching with clients and small groups. I currently work in Scotland where I live and occasionally in Canada.

  188. I really appreciated Mark Hayward’s video; it was conscious and very informational. I particularly enjoyed working through the map with the brief transcribed case example he provided. It was great to work through the tool in a the context of a case but in a safe way. I found his suggestion of taking such a map to supervision as really interesting, something I plan on doing. I have also spent time reflecting on Mark’s thoughts around the responsibility practitioners have on externalizing struggles and he’s thoughts on violence. It brought forward an important issue that needs to be worked on delicately within the context of a session. I would love to do more reading on the same.

    • I work in Brisbane, Australia

      I liked the black dog video.
      I found Mark’s transcript and session really helpful, to hear his thoughts about how the conversation went and to see that experienced practitioners like him don’t have linear conversations but still cover what they set out to. I like the idea of mapping where the conversation has been. I liked how he persisted in getting an answer to his questions and hearing his reflections. I often feel like other people know how to ask things better than I do. Reflecting on conversations in this way helps to develop skills. I would love the opportunity to see more sessions like this.

      The children I see have similar problems to this – good to see how this ‘antisocial type’ behaviour can be externalised while still acknowledging the effects.

  189. There is something intrinsically interesting about the idea of externalizing conversations. I am eager to try out these methodologies and help clients to be released of the self-defeating view of themselves as the problem. In this way we allow clients to regain a level of dignity that allows for the freedom to express narratives openly. I quite enjoyed the commonly asked questions of externalizing as they laid out perfectly for me the basics and essentials for learning to apply externalizing in practice. I was particularly interested in learning how to know what to externalize and was interested to hear that there are opportunities to externalize not only negative views of self but the positives as well.

    In my context I could see that there are many opportunities to externalize clients views that they are helpless. Many of the clients I see come from situations where they are struggling to see any way out of their issues. It might help clients to release themselves from narratives that restrict their abilities and strengths to solve their issues.

    I am excited to learn more about how to help clients externalize.

  190. Newcastle, Australia at the moment, but I’m from Italy
    I really love this perspective about externalising. It is a very interesting way of see things and a very useful tool to use first of all with ourselves and of course later with our clients.
    All the inspirations and the materials here are powerful and easy to access at the same time.
    Narrative Therapy is a new field to me and I’m very fascinated of this “new world”.

  191. Alberton, South Africa.
    I found all the resources about externalising extremely helpful. Mostly because it spoke about and demonstrated not only externalising the problem, but also what would be considered the’good things’. We often think it is okay to leave the good qualities internalised, but that limits our ability to further investigate the histories of these good qualities, which in turn, limits the person’s ability to construct a richly described alternative story that highlights future possibilities.

    For me, the Statement of Position Map 1 is very helpful if one is new in the practices of Narrative Therapy. It is a very useful guideline to make sure that one navigates the field of exploration into the possibilities of externalisation effectively and thoroughly.

    I have come across a problem of perfectionism and because it is acceptable and preferred in the culture in which I find myself, it is not viewed as a problem. The person who is experiencing it as a problem, has a different view to the cultural norm he functions in. Because it is regarded as a ‘good thing’ his family and friends make a point of verbalising it as good. He therefore has a problem externalising it, although his position is that it is hindering him in achieving his goals.
    The materials will certainly help me to ask the right questions to help him to externalise it in a near description and I believe once it is externalised, a wonderfully rich alternative story will be created.
    These materials have better equipped me to embark on that journey with him and others who will consult with me in future.

  192. I also loved the Black Dog video and will share a link to it on my counselling website. While the dog was actively trying to bring the person down, it also had a character that was not all together threatening, inferring that it could be tamed. Perhaps it’s because I love dogs, but then I think many people do, which makes it such a relatable character to portray depression.
    The issue of Worthlessness that was discussed reminded me of the power wielded by other people in our lives. I have seen clients who have previously attempted to create a preferred narrative for themselves, but the people around them resisted and discouraged their change. It seems sometimes that other people like to keep a person how they’ve always known them and that is so counter-productive to someone who wants to challenge the dominant story in their life.

    • It’s a good point Karen, about the others in peoples lives and how they support certain narratives. It is an excellent reminder of the importance of seeking additional information in creating thicker stories, and a really important aspect of this is seeking who would support a preferred narrative, who is most likely to play a part or wouldn’t be surprised by the new story.
      These people are so important in encouraging and supporting the process of generalisation of a new narrative from the therapy room to the real world of our clients where lasting and meaningful change can take place.

  193. I loved the black dog video- will be using this for psycho ed with clients. I also appreciated the resources on externalisation- as this is a very new concept for me. I believe externalisation may also play a role in empowering people, as many often feel guilty for not being as happy or fully functioning as others. Perhaps externalisation can assist shift the blame away from self to the external?

  194. I am reminded of the power of language in the very first line of this module. “The person is not the problem, the problem is the problem”.

    In my experience as a social work student, social work intern, social worker, then social worker student and intern again (!) I found that is has become accepted for health care workers working with children and families to prescriptively diagnose and assume to know all about the service users depression* without addressing the impact of having a ‘cloud’ of depression* over them. Naming and externalizing problematic behaviors and in engaging people in the process of thickening the thin and often problematic storylines can negatively inform their perspectives, self-concept, and identities.

    I very much appreciated the presentation by Mark Hayward who posed various questions to a young boy who had t-rex tempers following him around!

  195. The externalising process gives the client the opportunity to place the “problem” outside himself,
    so that it can be watched and looked at from a certain distance as if you would look at an object.
    Through out placing the problem talking about it from different stances becomes easier and it opens up for new possibilities which did not exist before.
    With gratitude Ute

  196. I found the “Introducing Sugar” article very useful in consolidating my understanding of the theory of Externalising. “The Black Dog” clip then consolidated my new understanding. I think that the provision of a metaphor/creation of a character allows us to externalise our negative self-talk and perceptions, as well as provide something concrete to refer to outside of therapy sessions to keep the negativity distinct from our self-concept.

    My students often refer to themselves as dumb and as failures. I think I could work with them to create a character to represent the fear of failure to empower them to work against this fear. They also carry a stigma from living in a socio-economically disadvantaged area; externalising the fears and emotions that come from this could also empower them to see themselves differently, and achieve different results in their life.

  197. This was an amazing chapter! The short film “I had a black dog. His name was depression” had a very important impact of how well the notion of internalizing is now part of my way of thinking. I was also impressed with Mark Hayward’s presentation but would really like to hear more about responsibility for the effects versus externalizing the problem. In working with offenders who have sexually abused children, I am wondering where/how to draw the line in externalizing the problem areas and where/how to ensure there is also a clear sense of responsibility for actions that caused harm to others. Is there further reading on this particular subject?

    • Dear Eve,

      The realm you mention is such an important one. In narrative practice we don’t contrast extenalising the problem and responsibility for the effects of the problem. It’s not one versus the other. The task is to externalise in ways in that assist people to take action in relation to the problem to reduce hazardous effects for all – to increase ‘response-ability’. In relation to circumstances of abuse of others, great taken is taken to ensure that externalising does not take place in ways that reduce responsibility but instead to enhance this responsibility. The following readings/resources may be relevant:


      And also this video:


      And these two chapters by Michael White from the book ‘Narrative practice: Continuing the conversations’ (which we compiled after Michael’s death):

      ‘The responsibilities: Working with men who have perpetrated violence’


      ‘Externalizing and responsibility’

      The book ‘Men’s Ways of Being’ may also be relevant, it includes the paper:

      ‘Step by step: Developing respectful and effective ways of working with young men to reduce violence.’

      I hope this is helpful Eve. Thanks for your thoughtful comment/question.

      • Thank you so much!
        I actually attended a lecture by Tod-Augusta Scott at the University of New Brunswick here where I live in Fredericton. It was helpful and I imagine the links you’ve shared will be as well.

  198. I found in the discussion about how clients name the problem very interesting. The narrative used by many clients to describe the problem is in professional language. This leaves the context of the “problem” being narrated in a language that is often unfamiliar, it is being understood from a lense that is not consistent with the theoretically based description used by professionals and therefore not an authentic way to express the experience from the clients perspective. This was evident in the transcript with ‘Joey’ where he found it difficult to articulate his thoughts on bullying. I also appreciated how Mark ‘stepped back’ from his original question when he realised that the question was to difficult for Joey to answer. I felt this releases the worker from a position of authority and instead uses the response as a platform to gauge the position of the client.

  199. I am particularly stirred by the story of “Sugar.” Here is a technique that feels almost childish in its presentation, yet the approach comes from a position of sophistication, understanding and non-judgement. By using play (and play-acting) to communicate a problem, the learning and discussion environment is made safe. Further, by ensuring the play-ing is culturally informed, the message is made intelligible and receivable and, most importantly, the audience is invited to become a visible and included part of the process.

    There are two moments in the Black Dog film that stand out for me. The first is where the man is engaging in finger-pointing conversation with another person while the Dog bites his hand. This image captures beautifully the reminder that, in so many encounters in life, we cannot know where someone is coming from. Imagining everyone with a dog nipping at their fingertips is a sound reminder to react to others with generosity and compassion.

    My second Black Dog moment is when the man throws a stick for the dog. The idea of a person being able to change their relationship with a previously stultifying obstacle to the point that they can have fun with it is incredibly uplifting and significant. It speaks beautifully to what is achievable, and of what to aim for, through the process of narrative therapy.

  200. I have really appreciated this chapter for all the inspiration it provides! As many others I particularly enjoyed the “Black-dog video” ’cause it is a great example of how externalizing can effectively work in triggering healing strategies. I also found Mark’s lecture full of practical tips to put externalization into practice directly. I have sometimes charted my conversations before but in a very different way and using a different perspective. I have found the idea of “mapping” the conversation so brilliant and helpful! Thinking “geographically” as the problem were a region that can be identified, mapped and then escaped… great!

    If I reflect om my contest, I may come to problems that might be externalized. As a career counselor I often face feelings of uncertainty, despair, hopelessness that the individual has internalized. I often meet people who have internalized their unemployment in such an extend they start punishing themselves for it. They seem to have forgotten the fact that unemployment is often the result of a social and economical dysfunction, not an individual failure.
    Just in this regard I find so interesting what stated in the Commonly Asked Question about problems constructed by culture and history. Even if I find a little bit hard to grasp how “we see externalizing conversations as small ‘p’ political action”. Could anyone kindly develop a little bit more this point?
    If I am thinking about unemployment then it is very easy to see the bond with culture and society but what about depression, tantrums, anxiety? I need a little bit of an help here, thanks! 🙂

    Reading the comments I have also get another inspiring way of using externalization to explain western concepts as labour, career and so on to non-European citizen.

    Thanks a lot! Looking forward to the next chapter!

    An Italian working as career counselor in Sweden 🙂

  201. Again thank you everyone at Dulwich Centre for this wonderful wealth of knowledge and expertise. I was enthralled by it all but I spent the most time on “Externalising – commonly-asked questions Co-ordinated by Maggie Carey & Shona Russell” the following sentence kept me very busy but also worried. “As narrative therapists, we believe that it is the rich description of the alternative stories of people’s lives that provides people with more options for action and therefore enables significant changes to occur.” This is very powerful and puts this area of study in a nutshell. However, what if you get it wrong and haven’t been able to find the real “problem” to externalise in a new story-line? It appears to me that this is very delicate, so much so, that I can imagine working like this only in a team or at least with one other therapist. Is that usual in Australia? Of course, someone like Mark Hayward with his experience and engaging manner makes it sound almost playful and definitely doable and he inspires me to learn more. I think I’ll be doing quite a lot more study before trying this out with the refugees I’m presently working with in Berlin, Germany;) On with the next chapter thank you so much.

    • Hello Fracine,

      You’re very welcome! It’s wonderful to hear that you have been finding the course enthralling. Thank you for your wonderings about identifying the ‘real problem’, I think it is a very relevant question!

      From my perspective I think that it’s important to think about the history of where ideas about a ‘real problem’ have come from in shaping our thoughts on how we talk with people.. Ideas of what are the ‘real’ problems seem to change over time and often it is those with the most power/authority/legitimacy that get to decide on what the ‘real problems’ are and therefore the right actions or responses that are required..

      For me, Narrative Practice doesn’t require us to identify or decide on a ‘real problem’ – but rather invites those we meet with to identify and richly describe whatever problems they are troubled with.. often there might be more than one problem, often problems exist in relationship to other problems, sometimes problems might change as we investigate them, or take new shapes as we continue to meet with people.. or sometimes some problems might become more pressing or less pressing to talk about than others at different times..

      Narrative Practices invite us to assume a posture where we are guided by those we meet with as to what problems are most important to to talk about or relevant to a storyline.. This releases us from that worry of having to identify the ‘right’ or ‘real’ problem!

      (These considerations are also linked to the difference between ‘Structuralist’ and ‘Poststructuralist’ ideas which you will read more about in the chapter “Critical Thinking”)

      In relation to your question about therapists in Australia, there are lots of different configurations of how people work here.. Some people work individually and some people work in teams. I really appreciate your reflection that you can only imagine working in these ways with others though.. I think that working with colleagues and in communities of practice has been a vital part of the development of Narrative Practices and certainly it’s been very important to me to be connected with other practitioners ideas and offerings.. It seems exciting to think that perhaps this online forum might be one way to open up connections that might not otherwise have been made across different nations and communities? I wonder if there are colleagues you might connect with here to continue these reflections!

      Thanks for making space to expand more on this particular theme Fracine – I wonder if others also have ideas about these themes?

      With warmth Phillipa

  202. The Black Dog video is very effective. From personal experience of Depression it is a video that would be helpful for any body, friend, family, public. It is such a helpful externalisation of the mental illness.
    The presentation on Michael White’s ideas was a very helpful explanation. There is so much to think about.

  203. The statement of position map, very well explained by Mark Hayward, is a very helpfull instrument. Because you can easily switch between the different levels, it releases you of the pressure of having to make progress. This means that you can take your time and stay close to the language of your client.
    At first “physical pain” seemed something that is so internal that it could not be externalised. But talking in an externalising way about the effects of the pain opens new ways, makes the story of the pain richer.

  204. I am in agreement with many of the previous posts on the most striking resources in this chapter: The Black Dog video and the Joey transcript. I appreciate the Black Dog externalization of depression, particularly vivid was a point in the video when the dog was biting the man’s hand and it made him irritable, that inner pain being expressed outwardly. With the transcript, as a grad student, I could visualize the session and my use of this when working with a person who is being influenced by a problem.

    Currently I am especially interested in using externalizing conversations with a couple, but thus far everything has been primarily used with individuals. I will have to do more research on this, but with what information we have learned thus far, I think that externalizing the problem(s) that is/are influencing their relationship could be very powerful in uniting them against the intruder that is seeking to separate them.

  205. The Black Dog video was striking, and a resource that is easily accessible for the conversations I share every day, with social work colleagues and clients.

  206. Well where do I begin? So much fantastic material.I still find the concept of the person not being the problem,the problem is the problem so powerful,”giving a person authority over their own problem”. What a very commonsensical approach,to look at oneself in relation to a problem/issue from this different perspective.I enjoyed the use of metaphor/characterisation with the examples of Joey and his ‘Pouncing Wolf Monster’,’The Black Dog’ and ‘Sugar’.Serious issues regarding bullying,violence,depression and diabetes addressed so skillfully.’Sugar’ I found very interesting due to my background as a Nurse.Such a serious health issue bought to life,’Sugar’ a substance with an attitude! What a wonderful way to disseminate vital information,using knowledge of local language and practices.Getting people to work collectively,using idioms and humour must surely be more effective than handing out pamphlets alone.I could see ‘Sugar’ working very well in our Pacific Island and Maori Communities here in New Zealand where diabetes is very problematic.The potential health benefits could improve people’s quality of life immeasurably.Bring on the next chapter!!

  207. Thank you for making this material available. In some of the reading material in this session regarding externalising, there was a suggestion to characterise the problem in an experience – near way. Can you please clarify what is meant by this and how this plays out?

    • Hello Deborah,

      Thanks for this question! In the book ‘Maps of Narrative Practice’ by Michael White he suggests that “an experience near description of the problem is one that uses the parlance of the people seeking therapy and that is based on their understanding of life (developed in the culture of their family or community and influenced by their immediate history). In using the word ‘particular’, I am acknowledging that no problem or predicament is perceived or received in identical ways by different people, or in identical ways at different times in a persons life. No predicament or problem is a direct replica of any other predicament or problem..” (White, 2007, p. 40).

      This might mean that we inquire about the particular words, images, metaphors, feelings, colours that richly describe the experience someone has of the problem.. the particular way they experience or would describe the problem they are facing.. Does this make sense?

      Warmly Phillipa

      • Thank you yes it does.

  208. I have used externalising conversations alot in my work with children, young people, their parents and teachers. I find it can be an extremely powerful way of inviting a different way of looking at a ‘problem’ especially with children/young people who have been positioned in a certain i.e. ‘naughty’, ‘angry’ ‘anxious’ etc. Sometimes when things are very stuck saying something as simple as “when does the anger happen the most/least” can help move conversations on in a different (and hopefully more thoughtful) direction.

    I loved the Sugar metaphor and I really want to use this idea of creating a character for the ‘problem’.

    I found the video and resources from Mark Hayward very interesting and it has given me a lot of ideas for my externalising conversations.

    I also found the ‘black dog’ video very moving and such a good example of externalising.

    Thank you; another excellent and inspiring chapter, which has given me alot to think about and use in my work.

  209. This chapter was simply refreshing and resourceful in so many ways. In terms of the resources, all of them have provided so much information and different ways of looking through the lens of narrative practice. My first pick would be the short film about overcoming the “black dog of depression”. I’ve seen the video earlier and now watching it in the context of narrative practices and immediately associating it with my personal experiences, this film has helped me identify with these experiences in a holistic manner. It helped me identify the authority I have over these experiences and “taming” it was a metaphor I chose to privilege. Culturally, this short film is much required to help the society in India to look at problems as external to the person, thereby reducing the stigma and discrimination associated with mental health concerns. It is of much significance in schools too where students are often perceived as “problem children” or “trouble makers”. This has inspired me to try and adopt these practices at my workplace in group settings.
    I have however been thinking about the challenges that narrative practices will bring in a culture that I come from where labelling and internalizing is acceptable and promoted and where simple and easy solutions or advice are more acceptable than long term work.
    The personal account by Aunty Barbara Wingard has been so inspiring. As someone who has been engaging in externalizing practices in individual therapy sessions as well as Personality Development classes with students in school, this account reinforced my beliefs in these practices. I am now inspired to document my work to identify the moments which have been externalized and then consciously identify the process thereafter.
    The presentation and charting demonstrated by Mark Hayward has been phenomenal in developing my understanding of the process of the Statement of Position Map 1. The transcript of Joe helped me understand how the four areas of inquiry can be used practically and why they are so significant. Mark’s address regarding externalizing and responsibility was quite insightful for me. I have always wondered how a sensitive experience like abuse can be externalized. It was beautiful to begin the process of looking at how cultural influences or secondary emotions like shame can be externalized. I would love to read and learn more about this.

    In my context and the field of mental health, I genuinely feel that the problem I would define as “experiencing a mental concern” itself has to be externalized. Mental Health concerns are not spoken about because of the fear of stigma and discrimination. It is time that these problems are externalized. On a more socio-cultural note, experiences like divorce, miscarriages, domestic abuse and childless marriages are stigmatized. I think the need to externalize these problems and not viewing women as the problems in these spheres is highly significant. It is important to bring in the conversation regarding the patriarchal nature of society and the position of women in the society to be able to address these problems as external entities in my context.

    This will certainly help address the position of women in the society, make it easier for women as a group to voice their rights and needs and also help address the secondary concerns especially emotional outcomes resulting from the existing societal beliefs about these problems.

    Looking forward to the next chapter! 🙂

    Lamia Bagasrawala, Mumbai, India

  210. This was a very helpful module and I am already looking forward to deepening the level of conversation with my counselling clients. The last part about statement of position maps resonated the most for me.

    I feel that some clients may be more receptive than others to speaking about their problems in terms of metaphors and as a counsellor I need to be mindful of not getting carried away, and matching the client’s pace and preference.

    A big you thank you to everyone at The Dulwich Centre for making these resources available online!

  211. I very much enjoyed reading the transcript of an excerpt of a session that illustrated the externalizing concept, along with reading the pdf. I am trained in psychodynamic psychotherapy–it seemed that this approach is more directive (though I don’t know the backstory on previous sessions). It also seems that the externalizing can help people keep feelings of shame at bay so that they have more freedom to openly think about and consider behaviors, feelings, thoughts etc. It seems to me that the externalizing can really help do this, in fact, I use externalizing alot in my work, helping people create images to symbolize feelings like anger, shame and compassion in combination with a mindfulness technique, ie. watching the symbol pass–clouds floating away, buses driving away, etc. I also refer to movies like Inside Out, to talk about personified emotions, I feel this really helps people to feel more levity around sometimes intense feelings and also bring home how typical these feelings are–innate to all human beings. I wonder though how shame comes up to be addressed in a narrative therapy situation, especially when it’s unconscious. I do feel that psychodynamic setting allows for uncomfortable, unconscious feelings to arise (sometimes after years) that then using externalizing can support. Another thought! I also enjoyed reading the excerpt on “Sugar”. I do work with refugees and imagined that this technique could be of use with some of our clients who might otherwise have difficulty understanding Western conceptualizations of health and mental health problems, and also groups that experience extreme stigma related to mental health.

    • Hi Dayna,

      Thanks for your comments. In following chapters you will have a chance to read more about the positioning of therapist in narrative practice (see chapter Collaboration & Accountability) … this might assist in relation to your questions re the approach being more directive.

      And in the chapter on Critical Thinking you will find a paper entitled ‘Post structuralism and therapy: What’s it all about?’ that I hope will assist in clarifying how a narrative approach departs from psychodynamic concepts.

      I hope this course is helpful to you.

  212. I found the example Mark Hayward used to explain the process of externalising really simple to follow and helped me understand how to bring this into practice. The chart was particularly useful to understand how you can go through different levels in this process, and it doesn’t have to be linear and how the person sets the pace not the practitioner.

  213. I thought the “Joe Transcript” was very powerful and a good example of position. Coming at the problem from a variety of angles allows the person to decide which parts of the problem, if any they want to have in their life and which parts they want to minimize, tame or fire.

    One way that I enjoy learning new approaches to therapy is to see/read actual transcripts, so thank you for including this.

  214. The black dog video was effective, particularly because of it being visual.

  215. My favourite section in this chapter was about the big black dog – I watched the video and realised that there are very simple and incredibly powerful ways of realising a problem and externalising it to both distance yourself from it for clarity and also take away some of it’s power and authority over you.

    It has made me think about an importance in finding an appropriate metaphor – for example I love dogs and so even though I saw the dog as taking on the persona of depression, I still felt an affinity towards it which I think would have been helpful in a therapeutic discussion. If the depression had been a bat (which I am not so keen on!), I think that I might not have seen the ‘softer side’ of the depression so easily.

    Would it be appropriate to work with someone to choose a metaphor for the problem which feels like it both sums up the feelings of the problem – but at the same time allows some room to form a positive emotional connection with it?

    • Hi Jas,

      That’s something that crossed my mind too. I loved how depression has been characterized in the video, but found myself wondering why a dog! 🙂

      When working with a client, I have found it to be most helpful to build on the metaphors that he/she introduces rather than suggesting one myself.

      Warm regards,

    • Hello Jas!

      Thanks for engaging with this course. In responding to your words about ‘finding an appropriate metaphor’ I am thinking about the upcoming chapter on ‘Collaboration and Accountability’. There will be some ideas within this chapter which speak to how we can co-create and collaborate with people in richly describing metaphors which fit for them from what’s called a ‘de-centred position’. For me, this is about asking questions that enable people to articulate their own experience.. sort-of like we are ‘investigative reporters’ – for me I am not so interested in suggesting metaphors or images but rather thinking about how I can ask questions which have people describing their experience in new ways..

      You also had me thinking about how externalising questions are not free from dominant discourses or the operations of power and privilege. For example, in attempting to richly describe a problem someone is facing, I could ask something like.. “is it red? or blue?”. In this question there is an implicit assumption that the problem has a colour and that it will be one of the options I have suggested.. and perhaps I as the counsellor/community worker know the appropriate answer! However, I could also ask something like, “Does it have a colour? Is it red? blue? or something else?”. In this way we can open up more options for someone identifying a metaphor that best fits for them..

      I really appreciated Jas your reflections on the ‘softer side’ of problems.. I know that in many of the conversations I have had, people have expressed a sense that through a relationship with the problem, they have discovered or engaged in particularly treasured parts of their life.. However, I think this is up to the people we meet with – sometimes people are not going to have a positive connection with problems like this and attempting to direct conversation towards problems having a softer side might not be helpful .. perhaps our job is to ask questions which open up investigation of the metaphors people choose in ways that might honour the complexities and contradictions of life.. What do you think!?

      Thanks for your thoughtful contribution! With respect, Phillipa

  216. The idea of externalising is not entirely new to me. One of my university lecturers introduced me to the concept a couple of years ago.

    Before I experiment too much I need to learn to apply this concept to my own life, and strive to externalise the things that are problematic to me.

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